top of page
Asian Institute of Research, Journal Publication, Journal Academics, Education Journal, Asian Institute
Asian Institute of Research, Journal Publication, Journal Academics, Education Journal, Asian Institute

Journal of Health and Medical Sciences

ISSN 2622-7258

Screen Shot 2018-08-12 at 1.24.09 AM.png
Screen Shot 2018-08-12 at 1.24.02 AM.png
Screen Shot 2018-08-12 at 1.23.57 AM.png
Screen Shot 2018-08-12 at 1.23.52 AM.png
open access

Published: 17 March 2021

Exercise Modulation of Blood Pressure, Respiratory Rate and Pulse Rate in Undergraduate Students

Taiwo E. O., Thanni L. O. A.

Olabisi Onabanjo University, Nigeria

journal of social and political sciences
pdf download

Download Full-Text Pdf



Pages: 59-66

Keywords: Sphygmomanometer, Blood Pressure Measurement, Pulse Rate, Respiratory Rate, Exercise.


Background: Physical Activity improves the functional capacity of the circulatory system with minimum myocardium stress. Objectives: This study was designed to assess exercise modulation and sex difference of blood pressure (BP), respiratory rate (RR) and pulse rate (PR) of selected undergraduate students. Design: This study involved 360 students selected using convenience sampling method, aged between 18 and 35 years. Lecturers and postgraduate students were exempted from the study. BP was measured using Sphygmomanometer before exercise and 30 minutes interval during exercise for two hours. Bicycle Ergometer was used as the exercise apparatus. Stop watch was used to measure PR and RR. Data were analyzed using descriptive statistics. Results: In total, 360 subjects, 180 males and 180 females, were included in the study. The mean SBP at baseline was 111.59 mmHg±0.35. It reduced to 96.99 mmHg±0.36 after 120 minutes of exercise (p=0.000). The mean DBP at baseline was 69.78mmHg±0.32. It reduced to 56.01mmHg±0.30 after 120 minutes of exercise (p=0.000). The mean Respiratory Rate (RR) at baseline was 15.91 cycles/ minute±0.11. It increased to 28.82 cycles/minute±0.21 after 120 minutes of exercise (p=0.000). The mean Rate Pulse Pressure (RPP) at baseline was 8322.35 mmHg. cycles/ minute±0.05 It increased to 12033.55mmHg.cycles/minute±0.21 after 120 minutes of exercise (p=0.000). Moreover, the male-female relationships showed that the SBP, DBP, RR and RPP were significantly lower in female than male subjects (p=0.000). Conclusions: Exercise reduces SBP and DBP. This reduction is greater among females.


  1. World Health Organization (2019) Global strategy on diet, physical activity and health.

  2. World Health Organization (2019) Physical activity and older adults.

  3. Jakovljevic DG (2018) Physical activity and cardiovascular aging: Physiological and molecular insights. Exp Gerontol 109: 67-74.

  4. Fletcher GF, Balady G, Blair SN, Blumenthal J, Caspersen C, et al. (1996) Statement on exercise: benefits and recommendations for physical activity programs for all americans. A statement for health professionals by the committee on exercise and cardiac rehabilitation of the council on clinical cardiology. American Heart Association. Circulation 94: 857-862.

  5. American College of Sports Medicine (2014) Guidelines for exercise testing and prescription (9th edn), Philadelphia: Lippincott Williams &Wilkins, USA.

  6. Astrand PO, Rodahl K, Dahl HA, Stromme SB (2003) Body fluids, blood and circulation. In: Bahkre MS, ed. Textbook of work physiology. Physiological Basis of Exercise (2nd edn), Champagne, IL: Human Kinetics 2003.

  7. Leon AS, Jacobs DR, DeBacker G, Taylor HL (1981) Relationship of physical characteristics and life habits to treadmill exercise capacity. Am J Epidemiol 113: 653-660.

  8. Shalnova S, Shestov DB, Ekelud LG, Abernathy JR, Plavinskaya S, et al. (1996) Blood pressure response and heart rate response during exercise in men and women in the USA and Russia lipid research clinics prevalence study. Atherosclerosis 122: 47-57.

  9. Cheng YJ, Macera CA, Addy CL, Sy FS, Wieland D, et al. (2003) Effects of physical activity on exercise tests and respiratory function. Br J Sports Med 37: 521-528.

  10. 10. Palatini P (2007) Heart rate as an independent risk factor for cardiovascular disease: current evidence and basic mechanisms. Drugs 67: 3-13.

  11. Perret-Guillaume C, Joly L, Benetos A (2009) Heart rate as a risk factor for cardiovascular disease. Prog Cardiovasc Dis 52: 6-10.

  12. Kjeldsen S, Mundal R, Sandvik L, Erikssen G, Thaulow E, et al. (2001) Supine and exercise systolic blood pressure predict cardiovascular death in middle-aged men. J Hypertens 19: 1343-1348

  13. Gobel FL, Nordstrom LA, Nelson RR, Jorgensen CR, Wang Y (1978) The rate-pressure product as an index of myocardial oxygen consumption during exercise in patients with angina pectoris. Circulation 57: 549-556.

  14. Czernin J, Sun K, Brunken R, Böttcher M, Phelps M, et al. (1995) Effect of acute and long-term smoking on myocardial blood flow and flow reserve. Circulation 91: 2891-2897.

  15. Fletcher GF, Balady GJ, Amsterdam EA, Chaitman B, Eckel R, et al. (2001) Exercise standards for testing and training: a statement for healthcare professionals from the American Heart Association. Circulation 104: 1694-1740.

  16. Saxena A, Minton D, Lee DC, Sui X, Fayad R, et al. (2013) Protective role of resting heart rate on all-cause and cardiovascular disease mortality. Mayo Clin Proc 88: 1420-1426.

  17. Mok A, Khaw KT, Luben R, Wareham N, Brage S (2019) Physical activity trajectories and mortality: population based cohort study. BMJ 365: l2323.

  18. Buchheit M, Simon C, Viola AU, Doutreleau S, Piquard F, et al. (2004) Heart rate variability in sportive elderly: relationship with daily physical activity. Med Sci Sports Exerc 36: 601-605.

  19. O'Brien MW, Johns JA, Dorey TW, Frayne RJ, Fowles JR, et al. (2019) Meeting international aerobic physical activity guidelines is associated with enhanced cardiovagal baroreflex sensitivity in healthy older adults. Clin Auton Res 30: 139-148.

  20. Karavirta L, Tulppo MP, Laaksonen DE (2009) Heart rate dynamics after combined endurance and strength training in older men. Med Sci Sports Exerc 41: 1436-1443.

  21. Ueno LM, Moritani T (2003) Effects of long-term exercise training on cardiac autonomic nervous activities and baroreflex sensitivity. Eur J Appl Physiol 89: 109-114.

  22. O'Hartaigh B, Pahor M, Buford TW, Dodson JA, Forman DE, et al. (2014) Physical activity and resting pulse rate in older adults: findings from a randomized controlled trial. Am Heart J 168: 597-604.

  23. Miranda LS, Sattelmair J, Chaves P, Duncan G, Siscovick DS, et al. (2014) Physical activity and heart rate variability in older adults: The Cardiovascular Health Study. Circulation 129: 2100–2110.

  24. Carter R, Hinojosa-Laborde C, Convertino VA (2015) Sex comparisons in muscle sympathetic nerve activity and arterial pressure oscillations during progressive central hypovolemia. Physiol Rep 3: e12420.

  25. Rennie KL, Hemingway H, Kumari M, Brunner E, Malik M, et al. (2003) Effects of moderate and vigorous physical activity on heart rate variability in a british study of civil servants. Am J Epidemiol 158: 135-143.

  26. Higginbotham MB, Morris KG, Williams RS, McHale PA, Coleman RE, et al. (1986) Regulation of stroke volume during submaximal and maximal upright exercise in normal man. Circ Res 58: 281-291.

  27. Chou TH, Akins JD, Crawford CK, Allen JR, Coyle EF (2019) Low stroke volume during exercise with hot skin is due to elevated heart rate. Med Sci Sports Exerc 51: 2025-2032.

  28. Parker BA, Kalasky MJ, Proctor DN (2010) Evidence for sex differences in cardiovascular aging and adaptive responses to physical activity. Eur J Appl Physiol 110: 235-246.

  29. Huxley VH (2007) Sex and the cardiovascular system: the intriguing tale of how women and men regulate cardiovascular function differently. Adv Physiol Educ 31: 17-22.

  30. Shin K, Minamitani H, Onishi S, Yamazaki H, Lee M (1997) Autonomic differences between athletes and nonathletes: spectral analysis approach. Med Sci Sports Exerc 29: 1482–1490.

  31. Yataco AR, Fleisher LA, Katzel LI (1997) Heart rate variability and cardiovascular fitness in senior athletes. Am J Cardiol 80: 1389-1391.

  32. Schuit AJ, van Amelsvoort LG, Verheij TC, Rijneke RD, Maan AC, et al. (1999) Exercise training and heart rate variability in older people. Med Sci Sports Exerc 31: 816-821

  33. Gori T, Wild PS, Schnabel R, Schulz A, Pfeiffer N, et al. (2015) The distribution of whole blood viscosity, its determinants and relationship with arterial blood pressure in the community: cross-sectional analysis from the gutenberg health study. Ther Adv Cardiovasc Dis 9: 354-365.

  34. Hagberg JM, Montain SJ, Martin WH, Ehsani AA (1989) Effect of exercise training in 60- to 69-year-old persons with essential hypertension. Am J Cardiol 64: 348-353.

  35. Reaven PD, Barrett-Connor E, Edelstein S (1991) Relation between leisure-time physical activity and blood pressure in older women. Circulation 83: 559-565.

  36. Carpio-Rivera E, Moncada-Jiménez J, Salazar-Rojas W, Solera-Herrera A (2016) Acute effects of exercise on blood pressure: a meta-analytic investigation. Arq Bras Cardiol 106: 422-433.

  37. Cornelissen VA, Verheyden B, Aubert AE, Fagard RH (2010) Effects of aerobic training intensity on resting, exercise and post-exercise blood pressure, heart rate and heart-rate variability. J Hum Hypertens 24: 175-182.

  38. Moreira S, Lima RM, Silva KE, Simoes HG (2014) Combined exercise circuit session acutely attenuates stress-induced blood pressure reactivity in healthy adults. Braz J Phys Ther 18: 38-46.

  39. Halliwill JR, Taylor JA, Eckberg DL (1996) Impaired sympathetic vascular regulation in humans after acute dynamic exercise. J Physiol 495: 279-288.

  40. Forjaz CL, Matsudaira Y, Rodrigues FB, Nunes N, Negrão CE (1998) Post-exercise changes in blood pressure, heart rate and rate pressure product at different exercise intensities in normotensive humans. Braz J Med Biol Res 31: 1247-1255.

  41. Alansare A, Alford K, Lee S, Church T, Jung HC (2018) The effects of high-intensity interval training vs. moderate-intensity continuous training on heart rate variability in physically inactive adults. Int J Environ Res Public Health 15: E1508.

  42. McPhee JS, French DP, Jackson D, Nazroo J, Pendleton N, et al. (2016) Physical activity in older age: perspectives for healthy ageing and frailty. Biogerontology 17: 567-580.

bottom of page