top of page
Asian Institute of Research, Journal Publication, Journal Academics, Education Journal, Asian Institute
Asian Institute of Research, Journal Publication, Journal Academics, Education Journal, Asian Institute

Journal of Health and Medical Sciences

ISSN 2622-7258

Screen Shot 2018-08-12 at 1.24.09 AM.png
Screen Shot 2018-08-12 at 1.24.02 AM.png
Screen Shot 2018-08-12 at 1.23.57 AM.png
Screen Shot 2018-08-12 at 1.23.52 AM.png
open access

Published: 30 December 2019

Profile of Stillbirth in a Referral Center in the Niger Delta Region of Nigeria

Emmanuel Columba Inyang-Etoh, Emmanuel Kunle Abudu, Utibe Sunday Bassey

University of Uyo, Nigeria

journal of social and political sciences
pdf download

Download Full-Text Pdf



Pages: 567-574

Keywords: Stillbirth, Antenatal Care, Associated Factors, Referral Center, Nigeria


Background: The rate of stillbirth in developing countries of Sub-Saharan Africa and South Asia remains a far cry from the rate of 12 per 1000 deliveries recommended by the United Nations. This tragedy results largely from inadequate maternity care services or failure to utilize available services in affected countries. Objectives: The aim of this study was to determine the stillbirth rate in the study center and to assess factors that were associated with the delivery of a stillborn infant. Method: This study was a retrospective descriptive study where mothers who had stillbirth were identified for in depth study of their clinical records. Results: The stillbirth rate was 67.5 per 1000 deliveries in the study center during the period under review. The majority (39.7%) of the mothers were aged 26 – 30 years, and more than half (54.7%) were multiparous. Over half (58.5%) of the deliveries were delivered at term and 46.4% of the mothers were un-booked. A vast majority (63.0%) of the infants were normal weight, while 54.6% were males. Macerated stillbirth accounted for 55.7% of the stillbirths. Multiparous women and women who delivered un-booked significantly had stillbirths (p = 0.000). Conclusion: The stillbirth rate in the study center was very high and this was commoner among multiparous women and women who did not receive antenatal care during pregnancy.


  1. Akombi, B. J. et al. (2018) 'Stillbirth in the African Great Lakes region: A pooled analysis of Demographic and Health Surveys,' PLoS ONE, 13(8), pp. 1–15. doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0202603.
  2. Ballard, K. et al. (2016) ‘The effect of prenatal and intrapartum care on the stillbirth rate among women in rural Ethiopia’, Int. J Gynecol Obset, 133(2), pp. 164–167. doi: 10.1016/j.ijgo.2015.09.027.
  3. Bhutta, Z. A. et al. (2011) ‘Stillbirths: What difference can we make and at what cost?’, The Lancet, 377(9776), pp. 1523–1538. doi: 10.1016/S0140-6736(10)62269-6.
  4. Ezugwu, E. et al. (2011) ‘Stillbirth rate at an emerging tertiary health institution in Enugu, southeast Nigeria’, Int J Gynecol Obdet., 115(2), pp. 164–166. doi: 10.1016/j.ijgo.2011.05.028.
  5. Goldenberg, R. L. and McClure, E. M. (2018) 'Importance of prenatal care in reducing stillbirth,' BJOG: An International Journal of Obstetrics and Gynaecology, 125(2), p. 148. doi: 10.1111/1471-0528.14696.
  6. Goldenberg, R. L., McClure, E. M. and Bann, C. M. (2007) ‘The relationship of intrapartum and antepartum stillbirth rates to measures of obstetric care in developed and developing countries’, Acta Obstetricia et Gynecologica Scandinavica, 86(11), pp. 1303–1309. doi: 10.1080/00016340701644876.
  7. Goldenberg, R. L., McClure, E. M. and Belizán, J. M. (2009) 'Commentary: Reducing the world's stillbirths,' BMC Pregnancy and Childbirth, 9(SUPPL. 1), pp. 4–7. doi: 10.1186/1471-2393-9-S1-S1.
  8. Hailemichael, F., Woldie, M. and Tafese, F. (2013) 'Predictors of institutional delivery in Sodo town, Southern Ethiopia,' African Journal of Primary Health Care and Family Medicine, 5(1), pp. 1–8. doi: 10.4102/phcfm.v5i1.544.
  9. Joy E Lawn, Simon Cousens, Jelka Zupan, for the L. N. S. S. T. (2005) 'Series MDGs and newborn babies,' 4 million neonatal deaths: When? Where? Why? p. 10. doi: 10.1016/S0140-6736(05)71048-5.
  10. Kaiser, J. E. (2018) ‘Stillbirth prevention 1921 and 2016: the call for “adequate antenatal supervision”’, BJOG: An International Journal of Obstetrics and Gynaecology, 125(2), p. 130. doi: 10.1111/1471-0528.14378.
  11. Kayode, G. A. et al. (2016) 'Predicting stillbirth in a low resource setting,' BMC Pregnancy and Childbirth. BMC Pregnancy and Childbirth, 16(1). doi: 10.1186/s12884-016-1061-2.
  12. Lavin, T. and Pattinson, R. C. (2018) ‘Does antenatal care timing influence stillbirth risk in the third trimester? A secondary analysis of perinatal death audit data in South Africa’, BJOG: An International Journal of Obstetrics and Gynaecology, 125(2), pp. 140–147. doi: 10.1111/1471-0528.14645.
  13. Di Mario, S., Say, L. and Lincetto, O. (2007) 'Risk factors for stillbirth in developing countries: A systematic review of the literature,' Sexually Transmitted Diseases, 34(7 SUPPL.). doi: 10.1097/01.olq.0000258130.07476.e3.
  14. Mullan, Z. and Horton, R. (2011) 'Bringing stillbirths out of the shadows,' The Lancet. Elsevier Ltd, 377(9774), pp. 1291–1292. doi: 10.1016/S0140-6736(11)60098-6.
  15. Olusanya, B. O. and Solanke, O. A. (2009) ‘Predictors of term stillbirths in an inner-city maternity hospital in Lagos, Nigeria Preventable viable stillbirths in developing countries B.O. Olusanya & O.A. Solanke’, Acta Obstetricia et Gynecologica Scandinavica, 88(11), pp. 1243–1251. doi: 10.3109/00016340903287474.
  16. Pattinson, R. et al. (2011) ‘Stillbirths: How can health systems deliver for mothers and babies?’, The Lancet. Elsevier Ltd, 377(9777), pp. 1610–1623. doi: 10.1016/S0140-6736(10)62306-9.
  17. Saleem, S. et al. (2018) 'Trends and determinants of stillbirth in developing countries: Results from the Global Network's Population-Based Birth Registry,' Reproductive Health, 15(Suppl 1). doi: 10.1186/s12978-018-0526-3.
  18. Samuelsson, M., Rådestad, I. and Segesten, K. (2011) 'A Waste of Life: Fathers' Experience of Losing a Child Before Birth,' Birth, 28(2), pp. 124–130. doi: 10.1046/j.1523-536X.2001.00124.x.
  19. Statistics, D. (1977) 'Demographic Statistics,' Alpacas, Sheep, and Men, (May), pp. 219–228. doi: 10.1016/b978-0-12-527850-8.50022-5.
  20. Suleiman, B. M., Ibrahim, H. M. and Abdulkarim, N. (2015) 'Determinants of stillbirths in Katsina, Nigeria: A hospital-based study,' Pediatric Reports, 7(1), pp. 7–12. doi: 10.4081/pr.2015.5615.
  21. Tayelgn, A., Zegeye, D. T. and Kebede, Y. (2011) 'Mothers' satisfaction with referral hospital delivery service in Amhara Region, Ethiopia,' BMC Pregnancy and Childbirth, 11. doi: 10.1186/1471-2393-11-78.
  22. Trulsson, O. and Rådestad, I. (2004) 'The Silent Child—Mothers' Experiences Before, During, and after Stillbirth,' Birth, 31(3), pp. 189–195.
  23. Verulava, T. et al. (2019) 'Evaluation of patient referrals to family physicians in Georgia,' Family Medicine and Primary Care Review, 21(2), pp. 180–183. doi: 10.5114/fmpcr.2019.84555.
  24. Vogel, J. P. et al. (2013) ‘Antenatal care packages with reduced visits and perinatal mortality: A secondary analysis of the WHO Antenatal Care Trial’, Reproductive Health, 10(1), pp. 1–7. doi: 10.1186/1742-4755-10-19.
  25. WHO (2006) 'Neonatal and perinatal mortality, country, regional and global estimates,' in Neonatal and perinatal mortality, country, regional and global estimates. Geneva: World Health Organization.
  26. Wolde, F. et al. (2018) 'Determinants of late initiation for antenatal care follow up: The case of northern Ethiopian pregnant women,' BMC Research Notes. BioMed Central, 11(1), pp. 1–7. doi: 10.1186/s13104-018-3938-9.
bottom of page