top of page
Asian Institute of Research, Journal Publication, Journal Academics, Education Journal, Asian Institute
Asian Institute of Research, Journal Publication, Journal Academics, Education Journal, Asian Institute

Journal of Health and Medical Sciences

ISSN 2622-7258

Screen Shot 2018-08-12 at 1.24.09 AM.png
Screen Shot 2018-08-12 at 1.24.02 AM.png
Screen Shot 2018-08-12 at 1.23.57 AM.png
Screen Shot 2018-08-12 at 1.23.52 AM.png
open access

Published: 17 January 2020

Reference Interval of Plasma Potassium: A Port Harcourt Based Study

Frederick Igila Allison, Duru Ugochukwu, Shittu Lukman

University of Port Harcourt, Nigeria

journal of social and political sciences
pdf download

Download Full-Text Pdf



Pages: 21-25

Keywords: Non-Parametric, Ions Selective Electrodes, Hypokalaemia


BACKGROUND: Plasma potassium concentration is influenced by dietary intake of potassium when all other parameters that control potassium homeostasis are normal. Studies have shown significantly different potassium means across regions and since blood potassium concentration is important in the management of kidney, heart and organ transplant patients among others, it is, therefore, important to determine our own population-based reference interval. AIM: This study was to determine the reference interval of plasma potassium in this geographical region. METHODS: This was a retrospective study where results from the laboratory day sheets of patients who met the inclusion criteria were selected over a period of six months. This results were determined using ISE LWE60E by Landwind. This results were ranked and outliers removed and the mean calculated. The 2.5th percentile was calculated and used as the lower limit while the 97.5th percentile was determined and used as the upper limit. RESULTS: The mean age and result of the study population were 45.2 years and 4.3mmol/l, respectively. The reference interval was 2.4- 4.7mmol/l. CONCLUSION: The reference interval so determined in this study is about the same with those determined from other locations in Nigeria but significantly different from that of Caucasians. Most of the lower limits of the reference interval determined in Nigeria were below 3.0mmol/l. This is significant as it calls for a re-definition of grading hypokalaemia.


  1. Agarwal, R., Afzalpurkar, R., Fordtran, J.S. (1994), 'Pathophysiology of potassium absorption and secretion by the human intestine.' Gastroenterology, 107, 548–571.
  2. Ajose, A.O. (2004), 'Reference Values for Plasma Electrolytes and Urea in Nigerian Children and Adolescents Residing in Abeokuta and its Environs.' Nigerian Quarterly Journal of Hospital Medicine, 14 (1), 26-30.
  3. Bengtsson, H., Öborn, I., Jonsson, S., Nilsson, I., Andersson, A. (2003), ‘Field balances of some mineral nutrients and trace elements in organic and conventional dairy farming-a case study at Öjebyn Sweden.' Europian Journal of Agronomy, 20(1), 101–116.
  4. Buono, M.J., McKenzie, B.K., Kasch, F.W. (1991), 'Effects of ageing and physical training on the peripheral sweat production of the human eccrine sweat gland.' Age Ageing, 20(6), 439-441.
  5. Castrop, H., Schießl, I.M. (2014), ‘Physiology and pathophysiology of the renal Na-K-2Cl cotransporter (NKCC2)’. American Journal of Physiology. Renal Physiology, 307(9), 991–1002
  6. Danziger, R.S., Tobin, J.D., Becker, L.C., Lakatta, E.E., Fleg, J.L. (1990), ‘The age-associated decline in glomerular filtration in healthy normotensive volunteers. Lack of relationship to cardiovascular performance’. Journal of the American Geriatrics Society, 38(10), 1127–1132.
  7. Dobermann, A., Cassman, K.G., Mamaril, C.P., Sheehy, J.E. (1998), 'Management of phosphorus, potassium, and sulfur in intensive, irrigated lowland rice.' Field Crop Research, 56(1), 113–138
  8. Frassetto, L.A., Sebastian, A., Morris, Jr, R.C. (1996), 'Effect of age on blood acid-base composition in adult humans: role of age-related renal functional decline.' American Journal of Physiology, 271(6), 1114-1122
  9. Harris, F.M.A. (1998), 'Farm-level assessment of the nutrient balance in northern Nigeria.' Agricultural Ecosystem. Environment, 71(1), 201–214.
  10. Horn, P.S., Feng, L., Li, Y., Pesce, A.J. (2001), 'Effect of outliers and nonhealthy individuals on reference interval estimation.' Clinical Chemistry, 47, 2137-2145.
  11. Jia K, Zhang C, Huang X, Wang L, Hao X, Mu R, et al. (2015), 'Reference Intervals of Serum Sodium, Potassium, and Chlorine in Chinese Han Population and Comparison of Two ISE Methods.' J Clin Lab Anal, 29(3), 226-34.
  12. John E. Morley. (2001), 'Decreased Food Intake with Aging.' Journal of Gerontology,56 (2), 81–88.
  13. Laure, R., Elyssa, A.F., Jeffrey, S.O., John, J.V., Gary, J.F. (2016), 'Reduced cell cohesiveness of outgrowths from eccrine sweat glands delays wound closure in elderly skin.' Aging Cell, 15(5), 842–852
  14. Makun, H.A., Alaya, L.A., Gbadebo, B.J., Bisalla, C.I. (2001), 'Establishment of reference values for serum electrolytes in normal and gastroenteritis subjects in Minna, Nigeria.' Trace Elem Med,18(4), 147-151.
  15. Pagana, K.D., Pagana, T.J., Pagana, T.N. (2019), ‘Mosby's Diagnostic & Laboratory Test Reference.' 14th ed. St. Louis, Mo: Elsevier; 2019.
  16. Penton, D., Czogalla, J., Loffing, J. (2015), ‘Dietary potassium and the renal control of salt balance and blood pressure’ Pflugers Arch, 467(3), 513-530
  17. Reidenberg, M.M., Gu, Z.P., Lorenzo, B., Coutinho, E., Athayde, C., Frick, J., Alvarez, F., Brache, V., Emuveyan, E.E. (1993), 'Differences in serum potassium concentrations in normal men in different geographic locations.' Clinical Chemistry, 39(1), 72-75.
  18. Rustad, P., Felding, P., Franzson, L., Kairisto, V., Lahti, A., Martensson, A., et al. (2004), ‘The Nordic Reference Interval Project 2000: recommended reference intervals for 25 common biochemical properties’. Scandinavian Journal of Clinical and Laboratory Investigation, 64,271–284
  19. Solberg, H.E. (1993), 'A guide to IFCC recommendations on reference values.' Journal of the International Federation of Clinical Chemistry ,5(4), 162-165.
  20. Terker, A.S., Zhang, C., McCormick, J.A., Lazelle, R.A., Zhang, C., Meermeier, N.P., et al. (2015), ‘Ellison DH. Potassium modulates electrolyte balance and blood pressure through effects on distal cell voltage and chloride’. Cell Metabolism, 21(1), 39–50
  21. Tosukhowong, P., Sriboonlue, P., Tungsanga, K., Bovornpadungkitti, S., Chatuporn, S., Muktahant, B., et al. (2001), 'Potassium status of Northeast Thai constructors in three different geographic locations.' Journal of Medical Association of Thailand, 84(1), 163-172.
  22. Viera, A.J., Wouk, N. (2015), 'Potassium disorders: Hypokalemia and hyperkalemia.' American Family Physician, 92(6), 487-495
  23. Wanzhu, T.U., George, J.E., Brian, S.D., John, H.P. (2017), 'Varying Influences of Aldosterone on the Plasma Potassium Concentration in Blacks and Whites.' America Journal of Hypertension, 30(5), 490–494.
  24. Weidmann, P., De Myttenaere-bursztein, S., Maxwell, M.H., De lima, J. (1975), 'Effect of ageing on plasma renin and aldosterone in normal men.' Kidney international, 8(5), 325-333.
bottom of page