top of page
Asian Institute of Research, Journal Publication, Journal Academics, Education Journal, Asian Institute
Asian Institute of Research, Journal Publication, Journal Academics, Education Journal, Asian Institute

Journal of Social and Political


ISSN 2615-3718 (Online)

ISSN 2621-5675 (Print)

asia insitute of research, journal of social and political sciences, jsp, aior, journal publication, humanities journal, social journa
asia insitute of research, journal of social and political sciences, jsp, aior, journal publication, humanities journal, social journa
asia insitute of research, journal of social and political sciences, jsp, aior, journal publication, humanities journal, social journa
asia insitute of research, journal of social and political sciences, jsp, aior, journal publication, humanities journal, social journa
open access

Published: 09 January 2023

Generalized Anxiety Disorder and Depression Among the Undergraduate Students Learning Online During the Covid-19 Pandemic: The Gender-Based Analysis

Ana Mariana, Bram Hadianto, Nur Nur, Karen Karen

Maranatha Christian University

journal of social and political sciences
pdf download

Download Full-Text Pdf



Pages: 23-31

Keywords: Depression, Gender, Generalized Anxiety Disorder, The Covid-19 Pandemic, Virtual Learning


This investigation attempts to verify the difference in generalized anxiety disorder and depression among undergraduate students learning online during the COVID-19 pandemic based on gender. Moreover, to accomplish this aim, this study utilizes 271 undergraduate students with batches 2015, 2016, 2017, 2018, 2019, 2020, and 2021 in the management department at the Business Faculty of Maranatha Christian University, Bandung, as the samples. The survey to obtain the students' data was from September until October 2021. Besides, the data are analyzed by the difference examination. After examining their response by independent samples t-test, this study demonstrates that females have higher generalized anxiety disorder and depression levels than males.


  1. Adwas, A. A., Jbireal, J. M., & Azab, A. E. (2019). Anxiety: Insights into signs, symptoms, etiology, pathophysiology, and treatment. East African Scholars Journal of Medical Sciences, 2(10), 580–591.

  2. Albert, P. R. (2015). Why is depression more prevalent in women? Journal of Psychiatry and Neuroscience, 40(4), 219–221.

  3. Alshammari, T., Alseraye, S., Alqasim, R., Rogowska, A., Alrasheed, N., & Alshammari, M. (2022). Examining anxiety and stress regarding virtual learning in colleges of health sciences: A cross-sectional study in the era of the COVID-19 pandemic in Saudi Arabia. Saudi Pharmaceutical Journal, 30(3), 256–264.

  4. Azanella, L. A. (2021). The face-to-face lectures can be started fom July 2021: This is the explanation of the Director General of Higher Education. Kompas.Com: Berita Terkini Hari Ini, Kabar Akurat Terpercaya.

  5. Azmi, F. M., Khan, H. N., & Azmi, A. M. (2022). The impact of virtual learning on students' educational behavior and pervasiveness of depression among university students due to the COVID‑19 pandemic. Globalization and Health, 18, 70.

  6. Bandelow, B., Michaelis, S., & Wedekind, D. (2017). Treatment of anxiety disorders. Dialogues in Clinical Neuroscience, 9(2), 93–107.

  7. Cahya, G. H. (2020). Stay home, President says. The Jakarta Post.

  8. Danylyshyn, B. (2020). The peculiarities of economic crisis due to COVID-19 pandemic in a developing country: Case of Ukraine. Problems and Perspectives in Management, 18(2), 13–22.

  9. Dhira, T. A., Rahman, M. A., Sarker, A. R., & Mehareen, J. (2021). Validity and reliability of the Generalized Anxiety Disorder-7 (GAD-7) among university students of Bangladesh. PLoS ONE, 16(12), e0261590. pone.0261590

  10. Dinata, H., Tiatri, S., & Heng, P. H. (2021). The anxiety of students during long-distance learning during the Covid-19 pandemic. Jurnal Muara Ilmu Sosial, Humaniora, & Seni, 5(2), 385–392.

  11. Ekasari, R., & Ahmad, A. (2022). Depression among university students during Covid-19 pandemic : An online-based cross-sectional study. Jurnal Saintika Medika, 18(1), 41–50.

  12. Gandryani, F., & Hadi, F. (2021). The vaccination of Covid-19 in Indonesia: Citizen right or duty. Jurnal Rechts Vinding: Media Pembinaan Hukum Nasional, 10(1), 23–41.

  13. Ghozali, I. (2017). Structural Equation Modelling: Concepts and Their Application by AMOS 24 (7th ed.). Badan Penerbit Universitas Diponegoro.

  14. Ghozali, I. (2021). Multivariate Analysis Application by IBM SPSS 26 (10th ed.). Badan Penerbit Universitas Diponegoro.

  15. Hakim, N., Parmasari, W. D., & Soekanto, A. (2022). Comparison of student anxiety levels in facing CBT exams based on gender. Journal of Agromedicine and Medical Sciences, 8(2), 115–119.

  16. Hamaideh, S. H., Al-Modallal, H., Tanash, M., & Hamdan-Mansour, A. (2022). Depression, anxiety, and stress among undergraduate students during the COVID-19 outbreak and "home quarantine." Nursing Open, 9(2), 1423–1431.

  17. Hartono, J. (2012). Business Research Methodology: Misunderstandings and Experiences. Badan Penerbit Fakultas Ekonomi Universitas Gadjah Mada.

  18. Hasanah, U., Ludiana, L., Immawati, I., & PH., L. (2020). Psychological description of students in the learning process during the Covid-19 pandemic. Jurnal Keperawatan Jiwa, 8(3), 299–306.

  19. Hosseini, L., & Khazali, H. (2013). Comparing the level of anxiety in male & female school students. Procedia - Social and Behavioral Sciences, 84, 41–46.

  20. Huang, F. Y., Chung, H., Kroenke, K., Delucchi, K. L., & Spitzer, R. L. (2006). Using the Patient Health Questionnaire-9 to measure depression among racially and ethnically diverse primary care patients. Journal of General Internal Medicine, 21(6), 547–552.

  21. Islam, A., Barna, S. D., Raihan, H., Khan, N. A., & Hossain, T. (2020). Depression and anxiety among university students during the COVID-19 pandemic in Bangladesh: A web-based cross-sectional survey. PLoS ONE, 15(8), e0238162.

  22. Lee, E. J., & Jeong, S. (2021). Analyzing gender differences in factors affecting depression among multicultural adolescents in South Korea: A cross-sectional study. International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health, 18, 3683.

  23. Moy, F. M., & Ng, Y. H. (2021). Perception towards E-learning and COVID-19 on the mental health status of university students in Malaysia. Science Progress, 104(3), 1–18.

  24. National Institute of Mental Health. (2022). Generalized anxiety disorder: When worry gets out of control.

  25. Panjaitan, J. S. G., & Suhartomi, S. (2022). The effect of online learning perception on students' mental health in the medical faculty at the HKBP Nommensen university. Majalah Kedokteran Andalas, 45(3), 356–366.

  26. Rojabi, A. R. (2020). Exploring EFL students' perception of online learning via Microsoft Teams: University level in Indonesia. English Language Teaching Educational Journal, 3(2), 163–173.

  27. Sholihin, M., & Ratmono, D. (2020). SEM analysis with WarpPLS 7. Penerbit Andi.

  28. Suliyanto, S. (2009). Research Business Method. Penerbit Andi.

  29. Sun, Y., Fu, Z., Bo, Q., Mao, Z., Ma, X., & Wang, C. (2020). The reliability and validity of PHQ-9 in patients with major depressive disorder in psychiatric hospital. BMC Psychiatry, 20, 474.

  30. Torres, F. (2020). What Is Depression? Physician Review.

  31. Tuasikal, A. N. A., & Retnowati, S. (2019). Emotional maturity, problem, and emotion-focused coping, as well as depression tendency of the students in their first year. Gadjah Mada Journal of Psychology, 4(2), 105–118.

  32. Utari, R. (2020). Five dangers of coronavirus alerting us.

  33. Widyawati, W. (2021). Face-to-face learning is started soon: Government targets that vaccination for educators and supporting personnel to be completed in June 2021. ROKOM: Redaksi Sehat Negeriku.

  34. World Health Organization. (2020). Fact Check: COVID-19 is not airborne.

  35. Yunus, H. (2021). Online learning management system (OLMS) in the Indonesian higher education: Investigating benefits and obstacles. PJEIS: Parahikma Journal of Education and Integrated Sciences, 1(1), 1–8.

bottom of page