Education Quarterly Reviews
Published: 08 July 2023
A Teaching Note on Remedies for Breach of Contract under the Uniform Commercial Code
Richard J. Hunter, Jr., John H. Shannon, Henry J. Amoroso
Seton Hall University, University of Tulsa
Download Full-Text Pdf
Keywords: Administrative Strategy, Crisis, School Leaders, Academic Administration
This article explains the various remedies and categories of damages that are available to an aggrieved buyer or seller in the case of a breach of contract under the Uniform Commercial Code. Sections of the Code will be cited, as well as relevant cases, and detailed explanations will be provided as well for each Code Section.
42 U.S. Code Section 1983 (1979). Action for deprivation of rights.
42 U.S. Code Section 1988 (1976-1990). Proceedings in violation of civil rights.
Bailey, A.L. & Desiderio, J.M. (2020). Rules governing anticipatory repudiation of contracts. New York Real Property Law Journal, 48: 29-ff., https://www.advance.lexis.com/api/document?collection=analytical-materials&id=urn:contentItem:5YR5-BWG1-JXG3-X0HT-00000-00&context=1516831
Benfield, M.W. (1974). Rights of a seller’s assignees to reclaim goods under the UCC. Texas Law Review, 53(1): 1-25.
Brandon & Tibbs v. George Kevorkian Accountancy Corp. (1990). 277 Cal. Rept. 40. California Court of Appeals.
Bridge, M.G. (1989), Mitigation of damages in contract and the meaning of avoidable loss. Law Quarterly Review, 105: 398-423.
BMW of North America v. Gore (1996). 517 U.S. 559. United States Supreme Court.
By-Lo Oil Co. v. ParTech, Inc. (2001). 11 F. App’x. United States Court of Appeals for the Sixth Circuit.
Chicago Roller Skate Mfg. Co. v. Sokol Manufacturing Co. (1970). 177 N.W.2d 25. Supreme Court of Nebraska.
City of Rancho Palos Verdes v. Abrams (2005). 544 U.S. 113. United States Supreme Court.
Craswell, R. (1990). Insecurity, repudiation, and cure. The Journal of Legal Studies, 19(2): 399-434.
Dagan, H. & Heller, M. (2023). Specific performance: On freedom and commitment in contract law. Notre Dame Law Review, 98: 1323-1372.
Day v. Woodworth (1851). 54 U.S. 363. United States Supreme Court.
Desiderio, J. (2019). Rules governing anticipatory repudiation of contracts. New York Real Property Law Journal, https:www.alblawfirm.com/articles/anticipatory-repudiation/
Dodge, W.S. (1999). Case for punitive damages in contracts. Duke Law Journal, 48(4): 629-700.
Donnelly, V. (2022). What is the purpose of damages? legalknowledgebase.com (September 19), https://legalknowledgebase.com/what-is-the-purose-of-damages
Dryer, D.J. (2021). The nine lives of section 1983: 1871 to now. The Indiana Lawyer (June 21), https://www.theindianalawyer.com/articles/the-nine-lives-of-section-1983-1871-to-now
Feldhausen, T.J. 92023). Anticipatory breach of contracts may become more common in a time of uncertainty. The National Law Review (March 26), 12(165), https://www.natlawreview.com/article/antisipatory-breach-contracts-may-become-more-common-time-uncertainty
Gans, D.H. (2022). Repairing our system of constitutional accountability: Reflections on the 150th anniversary of section 1983. Cardozo Law Revue De-Novo, 2022: 90-117.
Hadley v. Baxendale (1854). 156 Eng. Rep. 145. Court of Exchequer.
Hawkins, J. (2019). Protecting consumers as sellers. Indiana Law Journal, 94(4): 1407-1446.
Healy v. Beer Institute, Inc. (1989). 491 U.S. 324, United States Supreme Court
Hochester v. De La Tour (1853). 2 Ellis & Bl. 678, 118 ER 922. Queen’s Bench.
Hunter, R.J. & Amoroso, H.A. (2012). Damages for pain and suffering and emotional distress in products liability cases involving strict liability and negligence. Faulkner Law Review, 3(2): 277-302.
Hunter, R.J., Amoroso, H.A., & Shannon, J.H. (2012). A managerial guide to products liability: A primer on the law in the United States: Part II- A focus on the theories of recovery. International Journal of Learning and Development, 2(3): 99-122.
Hunter, R.J., Amoroso, H.A., & Shannon, J.H. (2019). The case of the Florida lemon: Options for the buyer or trap for the consumer? The Journal of Economics and Business, 2(4): 1328-1338.
Hunter, R.J. & Shannon, J.H. (2020). Managing financial stress for debtors and creditors in the midst of a pandemic: Part 1- Security interests under article 9 of the UCC. International Journal of Business Management and Commerce, 5(2): 11-20.
Hunter, R.J., Shannon, J.H., & Amoroso, H.J. (2023). A teaching note on warranties. Education Quarterly Reviews, 6(2): 40-57.
Irby, L. (2021). Statute of limitations for written contracts. thebalancemoney.com (July 12), https://www.thebalancemoney.com/written-contracts-961146
Jiminez, M.J. (2018). Retribution in contract law. University of California Davis Law Review, 52: 637-727.
King, J.H. (1988). The exclusiveness of an employee’s workers’ compensation remedy against his employer. Tennessee Law Review, 55: 405-516.
Kryla-Cudna, K. (2021). Adequate assurance of performance under the UN convention on contracts for the international sale of goods and the uniform commercial code. International and Comparative Law Quarterly, 70: 935-960.
Law Insider (2023). Specially manufactured goods definition, https://www.lawinsider.com/dictionary/specially/manufactured-goods (accessed June 18, 2023).
LloydWinter, PC (2023). Why I can’t get pain and suffering for a breached contract. LloydWinterLaw.com, https://lloydwinterlaw/com/blog/cant-get-pain-and-suffering-breached-contract/#(accessed June 18, 2023).
Markovitz, D. (2014). Good faith as contract’s core value. In Philosophical foundations of contract law (Klass, G., Letsas, G., & Sprai, P., eds), Chapter 19. Oxford, U.K.: Oxford University Press.
Martin, J. S. (2019). Sales. The Business Lawyer, 74(4): 1207-1224.
Martin v. U-Haul Co. of Fresno (1988). 204 Cal. App. 2d 400. California Court of Appeals.
McCormick, C.T. (1935). Handbook on the law of damages: 289-291. St. Paul, Minn.: West Publishing.
McKee, B. (1996). The implications of BMW v. Gore for future punitive damages litigation. Alabama Law Review, 48(1): 175-228.
Meyers, D.A. (2020). Consequential damages: Bad faith lite? Trial Advocacy, 39: 36-37.
Miller, B. (2022). Constitutional law – federal courts: Is the Constitution a sword? Western New England Law Review, 44: 451=513.
Murtagh, K.I. (1988-1989). UCC section 2-719: Limited remedies and consequential damages. Cornell Law Review, 74(2): 359-379.
NCAA v. Jerry Tarkanian (1988). 488 U.S. 179. United States Supreme Court.
Niemeyer, P.V. (2004). Awards for pain and suffering: The irrational centerpiece of our tort system. Virginia Law Review, 90(5): 1401-1421.
Pacific Mut. Life Ins. Co. v. Haslip (1991). 499 U.S. 1. United States Supreme Court.
Paley, J. (2023). What is a demand for adequate assurance letter? Nolo.com, https://euvcs.com/assurances-and-contract-law (accessed June 18, 2023).
Parker v. 2oth Century Fox (1970). 474 P.2d 689. Supreme Court of California.
Phalan, R.T. (1955). Uniform commercial code-sales-summary of remedies. University of Pittsburgh Law Review, 6(3): 209-221.
Poole, C.G. (1978). Commercial Law - Anticipatory repudiation: A new measure of buyer’s damages under the uniform commercial code. North Carolina Law Review, 56(2): 370-380.
Prince Point LLC v. Muss Development LLC (2016). 138 A.D.3d 112. New York Court of Appeals.
Probasco, J. (2023). What is a specific performance clause? Investopedia (February 20), https://www.investopedia.com/specific-performance-clause-5536830
Rachmani Corp. v. 9 East 96 St. Apartment Corp. (1995). New York Court of Appeals.
Salzman, Z. (2020). Liquidated damages clauses in employment agreements. ABA Journal of Labor and Employment Law, 34: 239-251.
Schwartz, A. (1979). The case for specific performance. Yale Law Journal, 89(2): 271-307.
Selig v. Wunderlich Contracting Co. (1955). 160 Neb. 215, 69 N.W.2d 861. Supreme Court of Nebraska.
Sepinuck, S.L. (2018). The various standards for the “good faith” of a purchaser. The Business Lawyer, 73(3): 581-626.
Shatz, B.G. (2011). Finality & remittitur: What goes up must come down. Manatt.com (July 15), https://www.manatt.com/insights/articles/2011/finally-remittitur-what-goes-up-must-come-down
Soble, D. (2016).The right to cure: Why it’s important to read your contract. Proven Resource (May 5), https://www.linkedin.com/puse/rigt-cure-why-its-iportant-read-your-contract-david-soble-jd/
Stimmel, Stimmel & Roeser (2023). The uniform commercial code- The basic structure. Stimmel Law, https://www.stimmel-law.com/en/articles/uniform-commercial-code-basic-structure
(accessed June 19, 2023).
Swan, J. (2004).Punitive damages for breach of contract: A remedy in search of a justification. Queen’s Law Journal, 29(2): 596-646.
Szladits, C. (1955). The concept of specific performance in civil law. The Business Lawyer, 4(2): 208-234.
Tower City Grain v. Richman (1975). 232 N.W.2d 61. Supreme Court of North Dakota.
Turner, S.C. (1998) The shadow of BMW of North America, Inc. v. Gore. Wisconsin Law Review, 1998(1): 427-462.
Tuovila, A. (2023). Insolvencies: Definition, how it works, and contributing factors. Investopedia (May 14), https://www.investopedia.com/terms/insolvency.asp
TXO Products Corp. Alliance Reserves Corp. (1993). 509 U.S. 443. United States Supreme Court.
Uniform Commercial Code (2002). Article 2 – Sales, www.law,cornell,edu
Vanderbilt University v. Gerry Dinardo (1999). 174 F.3d 751. United States Court of Appeals for the Sixth Circuit.
Wegener, J. & Caplan, C. (2021). Liquidated damages - The basics. American Bar Association (September 20),
Wright, T.R., Carr, C,N, & Gasek, J.W.P. (2022). Truth and reconciliation: The Ku Klux Klan hearings of 1871and the genesis of section 1983. Dickinson Law Review, 126: 685-717.