top of page
Asian Institute of Research, Journal Publication, Journal Academics, Education Journal, Asian Institute
Asian Institute of Research, Journal Publication, Journal Academics, Education Journal, Asian Institute

Education Quarterly Reviews

ISSN 2621-5799

asia institute of research, journal of education, education journal, education quarterly reviews, education publication, education call for papers
asia institute of research, journal of education, education journal, education quarterly reviews, education publication, education call for papers
asia institute of research, journal of education, education journal, education quarterly reviews, education publication, education call for papers
asia institute of research, journal of education, education journal, education quarterly reviews, education publication, education call for papers
open access

Published: 08 October 2022

Examination of Teachers' Knowledge Levels of the Concept of Early Literacy in Terms of Various Variables

Halil Taş, Muhammet Baki Minaz

Ministry of National Education (Turkey), Siirt University (Turkey)

asia institute of research, journal of education, education journal, education quarterly reviews, education publication, education call for papers
pdf download

Download Full-Text Pdf



Pages: 1-15

Keywords: Literacy, Early Literacy, First Reading and Writing, Early Literacy Development, Early Literacy Instruction, Primary School Teacher


The aim of this study is to determine the level of knowledge of primary school teachers about the concept of early literacy, to determine whether this knowledge level differs according to the teachers' gender, the type of school they graduated from and their professional seniority; to reveal the importance of early literacy skills for 1st grade students of primary school and how to increase teachers' early literacy knowledge levels. This research is a descriptive study of the nature of a survey model. In this study, in which quantitative and qualitative research techniques were used together, mixed method was used in data collection and analysis. The study group of the research consists of 52 primary school teachers who teach the 1st grade. While schools were determined through the disproportionate stratified sampling, teachers were determined through simple random sampling. The analysis of the qualitative data was conducted via content analysis while the quantitative data were analyzed via independent group t-test and ANOVA in this study for which data collection was provided via a semi-structured interview form developed by the researchers. Research findings reveal that primary school teachers have low knowledge levels regarding early literacy and their knowledge levels do not vary depending on gender, the type of school they graduated from and professional seniority. In classroom teaching departments, courses with well-prepared content on early literacy should be put in place, effective in-service training activities should be organized on the subject and classroom teachers should be exchanged frequently with their preschool teachers.


  1. Aarnoutse, C., Van Leeuwe, J., & Verhoeven, L. (2005). Early literacy from a longitudinal perspective. Educational Research and Evaluation, 11, 253-275.

  2. Akdemir, A. S. (2013). A history of teacher training programmes and their problems in Turkey. Turkish Studies-International Periodical for the Languages, Literature and History of Turkish or Turkic 8(12), 15-28.

  3. Akyol, H. & Temur, T. (2008). Comparıng reading skills of first grade students Who learn reading-writing with sound-based clause method and clause method. Mustafa Kemal Journal of University Social Sciences Institute, 5 (9), 79-95.

  4. Akyol, H. (2018). Teaching Turkish first reading and writing. Pegem Academic Publishing

  5. Akyol, T., Şenol, F. B., & Yaşar, M. C. (2022). The effect of project approach-based education on children’s early literacy skills. International Journal of Contemporary Educational Research, 9(2), 248-258.

  6. Altun, D. & Sarı, B. (2018). A Decade of Early Literacy Research Trends in Turkey: A Thematic Review. Journal of Education and Future, 13, 13-32

  7. Altun, D. ve Erden, F.T. (2016). Pre-service preschool teachers’ opinions and school practices on early literacy. Ahi Evran University Journal of Kırşehir Faculty of Education, 17 (1), 241-261

  8. Balla-Boudreau, N., & O’Reilly, D. (2002). Early Childhood Literacy Programs in Canada: A National Survey. national_survey.

  9. Baltacı, A. (2019). The qualitative research process: How to conduct a qualitative research. Ahi Evran University Journal of Social Sciences Institute, 5(2), 368-388

  10. Bennett-Armistead, V. S., Duke, N. K., & Moses, A. M. (2005). Literacy and the youngest learner. New York Scholastic, Inc.

  11. Bloomberg, L. D., & Volpe, M. (2018). Completing your qualitative dissertation: A road map from beginning to end. Los Angeles: Sage Publications, Inc.

  12. Büyüköztürk, Ş., Kılıç-Çakmak. E., K., Akgün, Ö., E., Karadeniz, Ş., & Demirel, F. (2022). Scientific research methods. (23nd ed.). Pegem Academic Publishing

  13. Campbell, F. A., Ramey, C.T., Pungello, E.P., Sparling, J.J., Miller-Johnson, S. (2002). Early childhood education: Young adult outcomes from the Abecedarian Project. Applied Developmental Science, 6, 42–57.

  14. Casey, A., & Howe, K. (2002). Best practices in early literacy skills. In A. Thomas & J. Grimes (Eds.), Best practices in school psychology IV (pp. 721-735). NASP Publications, Inc.

  15. Clay, M. M. (1966). Emergent reading behaviour.[Unpublished doctoral dissertation]. University of Auckland.

  16. Creswell, J. W., & Cheryl, N. P. (2017). Qualitative inquiry and research design: Choosing among five approaches. Sage Publications, Inc.

  17. Creswell, J. W., & Creswell J. D. (2018). Research design: Qualitative, quantitative, and mixed methods approaches. Sage Publications, Inc.

  18. Crim, C., Hawkins, J., Thornton, J., Rosof, H. B., Copley, J., & Thomas, E. (2008). Early childhood educators’ knowledge of early literacy development. Issues in Teacher Education, 17(1), 17-30

  19. Çelenk, S. (2013). First reading and writing curriculum and teaching. Eğiten Publishing.

  20. Çetin, A. (2020). Literacy view and early literacy. In Uludağ, G. & Durmuş, T. (Eds.). Early literacy education (pp. 25-46). Nobel Academic Publishing

  21. Davis, K. E. (2022). Kindergarten, first, and second grade teachers’ perceptions, knowledge, and attitudes regarding teaching early literacy skills incorporating the science of reading, [Unpublished doctoral dissertation]. Robert Morris University

  22. Delican, B. & Ateş, S. (2022). Development of a self-efficacy scale for supporting early literacy skills. International Journal of Progressive Education, 18(2), 259-274

  23. Demirel, M. (2006). A research on the changes in teaching first reading and writing, [Unpublished master's thesis]. Selçuk University Institute of Social Sciences

  24. Dennis, L. R., & Horn, E. (2011). Strategies for supporting early literacy development. Young Exceptional Children,14(3), 29-40

  25. Dere, Z. (2019). Published by Canadian center of science and education analyzing the early literacy skills and visual motor integration levels of kindergarten students. Journal of Education and Learning, 8(2), 176-181

  26. Dickinson, D. K., & Caswell, L. (2007). Building support for language and early literacy in preschool classroomsthrough in-service professional development: Effects of the literacy environment enrichment program (LEEP). Early Childhood Research Quarterly, 22, 243-260.

  27. Dickinson, D.K. & Neuman, S.B. (2007). Handbook of early literacy research. The Guilford Press

  28. Elliott, E., & Olliff, C. (2008). Developmentally appropriate emergent literacy activities for young children: Adapting the early literacy and learning model (ELLM). Early Childhood Education Journal, 35, 551–556.

  29. Ergül, C., Karaman, G., Akoğlu, G., Tufan, M., Sarıca, A. D. & Kudret, Z. B. (2014). Early childhood teachers’ knowledge and classroom practices on early literacy. Primary Education Online, 13(4), 1449-1472

  30. Evangelou, M., & Sylva, K. (2003). The effects of the peers early education partnership (PEEP) on children’s developmental progress. Child Care & Early Education Research Connections.

  31. Gillen, J., & Hall, N. (2003). The emergence of early childhood literacy. In Hall, N., Larson, J., & Marsh. J (Eds). Handbook of Early Childhood Literacy (pp. 3-12). Sage Publicatíons, İnc.

  32. Güner, N. (2011). Examining the level of classroom management knowledge of teachers in inclusive classrooms. Kastamonu Education Journal, 19(3), 691-708.

  33. Hindman, A. H. & Wasik, B. A. (2008). Head Start teachers’ beliefs about language and literacy instruction. Early Childhood Research Quarterly, 23, 479-492.

  34. Hsieh, W.Y., Hemmeter, M. L., McCollum, J. A. & Ostrosky, M. M. (2009). Using coaching to increase preschool teachers’ use of emergent literacy teaching strategies. Early Childhood Research Quarterly, 24, 229-247.

  35. Israel, S.E. (2007). Early reading first and beyond. Corwin Press

  36. Işıkgöz, M., Yiğitsoy, H., & Çiçekçe K. (2018). Investigating literacy teachers' level of information about class management who have students in their classes attending inclusive education: the sample of Kayseri. Batman University Journal of Life Sciences, 8(1), 44-51

  37. Juel, C. (1988). Learning to read and write: A longitudinal study of fifty-four children from first through fourth grade. Journal of Educational Psychology, 80, 437-447.

  38. Justice L .M., & Ezell, K. E. (2001). Word and print awareness in 4-year- old children. Child Language Teaching and Therapy,13, 207- 225.

  39. Kaminski, R.A., Powell-Smith, K.A., Hommel, A., McMahon, R. & Aguayo, K.B. (2015). Development of a tier 3 curriculum to teach early literacy skills. Journal of Early Intervention (JEI), 36(4), 313-332

  40. Karaman, G., & Aytar, A. G. (2016). Development of early literacy skills assessment tool. Mersin University Journal of the Faculty of Education, 12(2), 516-541

  41. Karaman, S. Z. (2016). Relationship between teachers profficiency of class management and profficiency of career, [Unpublished master's thesis]. İstanbul Yeditepe University Graduate School of Educational Sciences

  42. Karasar, N. (2019). Scientific research method. Nobel Academic Publishing

  43. Kargın, T., Güldenoğlu, B. & Ergül, C. (2017). Early literacy profile of kindergarten children: Ankara sample. Ankara University Faculty of Educational Sciences Journal of Special Education, 18(1), 61-87

  44. Kowalski, M.J., Elliot, A. J., Guzman, J. C., & Schuenke-Lucien, K. (2022). Early literacy skill development and motivation in the low-income context of Haiti. International Journal of Educational Research, 113, 101972

  45. König, J., Hanke, P., Glutsch, N., Jäger-Biela, D., Pohl, T., Becker-Mrotzek, M., & Schabmannet, A. (2022). Teachers’ professional knowledge for teaching early literacy: Conceptualization, measurement, and validation. Educational Assessment, Evaluation and Accountability, June 2022, 1-25.

  46. Küçükahmet, L. (2007). Evaluation of the undergraduate programs of teacher education introduced in 2006-2007 educational year. The Journal of Turkish Educational Sciences, 5(2), 203–218.

  47. Lonigan, C. J. (2004). Emergent literacy skills and family literacy. In Wasik, B. H. (Ed.), Handbook of family literacy (pp. 57-82). Lawrence Erlbaum Associates.

  48. Majorano, M., Ferrari, R., Bertelli, B., Persici, V., & Bastianello, T. (2022). Talk-An Intervention Programme for Enhancing Early Literacy Skills in Preschool Children: A Pilot Study. Child Care in Practice, 28(4), 691-707

  49. Masny, D. (1995). Literacy development in young children. Interaction, 6(1), 21–24.

  50. Miles, M. B., Huberman, A. M., & Saldana, J. (2018). Qualitative data analysis: A methods sourcebook. Sage Publications, Inc.

  51. Morrow, L. M. (2014). Literacy development in the early years: Helping children read and write. Pearson.

  52. Neuman, S. B., & Dickinson, D. K. (Eds.) (2001). Handbook of early literacy research. Guilford Publications.

  53. Özdemir, Y. & Kıroğlu, K. (2019). A longitudinal overview of the development of reading comprehension skills. Amasya Education Journal, 8(1), 85-124.

  54. Patton, M. Q. (2005). Qualitative research & evaluation methods. New York: Sage Publications, Inc.

  55. Sandelowski, M., Voils, C. I., & Knafl, G. (2009). On quantitizing. Journal of Mixed Methods Research, 3(3), 208-222.

  56. Schmidt, F. L. & Hunter, J. E. (2014). Methods of meta-analysis: Correcting error and bias in research findings. Sage Publications, Inc.

  57. Silverman, D. (2006). Interpreting qualitative data: Methods for analyzing talk, text and interaction. Sage Publications, Inc.

  58. Stanovich, K. E. (1986). Matthew effects in reading: Some consequences of individual differences in the acquisition of literacy. Reading Research Quarterly, 21, 36–407.

  59. Strickland, D., Riley-Ayers, S. (2006). Early Literacy: Policy and Practice in the Preschool Years. National Institute for Early Education Research (NIEER) Press

  60. Sulzby, E., & Teale, W. H. (1991). The development of the young child and the emergence of literacy. In J. Flood., D. Lapp., J.R. Squire., & J. M. Jensen (Eds.). Handbook of research on teaching the English language arts (pp. 273-285). Lawrence Erlbaum Assosication.

  61. Şişman, G. T. (2017). The concept of curriculum in the pre-service teacher education course contents. Primary Education Online, 16(3), 1301-1315.

  62. Taş, H. (2020). Development of writing awareness skills in children and preparation for first reading and writing. In Uludağ, G. & Durmuş, T. (Eds.), Early literacy education (pp. 91-108). Nobel Academic Publishing

  63. Taşkaya, C. Ö., & Uyar, M. (2017). Classroom management competency of primary school teachers in primary schools in Konya province. International Journal of New Approach in Social Studies, 1, 1-11

  64. Torgesen, J. K., & Burgess, S. R. (1998). Consistency of reading-related phonological processes throughout early childhood: evidence from longitudinal correlational-instructional studies. In J. Metsala & L. Ehri (Eds.), Word recognition in beginning reading(pp.161-188), Lawrence Erlbaum Associates Inc.

  65. Whitehurst, G. J. & Lonigan, C. J. (1998). Child development and emergent literacy. Child Development, 69(3), 848-872.

  66. Whitehurst, G. J. (2001). Young Einsteins: Much too late. Education Matters, 1(2), 16–19.

  67. Whitehurst, G. J., Arnold, D.S., Epstein, J. N., Angell, A. L., Smith, M., & Fischel, J. E. (1994). A picture book reading intervention in day care and home for children from low-income families. Developmental Psychology, 30, 679-689.

  68. Wyse, D. & Parker, C. (2012). The early literacy handbook. Practical Pre-School Books

  69. Yazıcı, E. & Kandır, A. (2018). An investigation into the studies related to supporting early literacy skills at home. Gazi University Journal of Gazi Educational Faculty, 38(1), 101-135.

  70. Yıldırım, A. & Şimşek, H. (2018). Qualitative research methods in the social sciences. Seçkin Publishing.

bottom of page