top of page
Asian Institute of Research, Journal Publication, Journal Academics, Education Journal, Asian Institute
Asian Institute of Research, Journal Publication, Journal Academics, Education Journal, Asian Institute

Education Quarterly Reviews

ISSN 2621-5799

asia institute of research, journal of education, education journal, education quarterly reviews, education publication, education call for papers
asia institute of research, journal of education, education journal, education quarterly reviews, education publication, education call for papers
asia institute of research, journal of education, education journal, education quarterly reviews, education publication, education call for papers
asia institute of research, journal of education, education journal, education quarterly reviews, education publication, education call for papers
open access

Published: 15 December 2022

Smartphone Addiction and Social Appearance Anxiety as Predictors of Junior High Students’ Need to Make a Good Impression

Zeliha Traş, Büşra Kökçam, Büşra Akay

Necmettin Erbakan University (Turkey), Ministry of National Education (Turkey)

asia institute of research, journal of education, education journal, education quarterly reviews, education publication, education call for papers
pdf download

Download Full-Text Pdf



Pages: 127-135

Keywords: Smartphone Addiction, Social Appearance Anxiety, Need for Social Approval, Need to Make a Good Impression, Early Adolescence


The aim of the present study is to investigate the relative contribution of smartphone addiction and social appearance anxiety as well as age and gender in predicting early adolescents' need to make a good impression. 382 students (50% girls) from two junior high schools answered the Smartphone Addiction Scale-Short Version, the Social Appearance Anxiety Scale and the Need for Social Approval Scale. As a result of the regression analysis, age, gender, smartphone addiction and social appearance anxiety contributed significantly to explain 38% of the variance in adolescents' need to make a good impression. Social appearance anxiety was found to be the strongest predictor of the need to make a positive impression in early adolescents. A moderate positive relationship was found between smartphone addiction and the need to leave a positive impression. While age was negatively related to the need to make a good impression, girls were found to have a higher need to make a good impression than boys. Examining the model with regression diagnostics, it was concluded that it is a reliable model that can be generalized to the population.


  1. Akarsu, H., & Demirpençe, M. (2022). Ergenlerde Sosyal Görünüş Kaygısının İletişim Becerilerine Etkisi [The effect of social appearance anxiety on communication skills in adolescents]. Necmettin Erbakan Üniversitesi Ereğli Eğitim Fakültesi Dergisi, 4(1), 14-26.

  2. Andreassen, C. S. (2015). Online social network site addiction: A comprehensive review. Current Addiction Reports, 2(2), 175-184.

  3. Andreassen, C. S., Pallesen, S., & Griffiths, M. D. (2017). The relationship between addictive use of social media, narcissism and self esteem: Findings from a large national survey. Addictive Behaviors, 64, 287–293.

  4. Ayar, D., Gerçeker, G. Ö., Özdemir, E. Z., & Bektas, M. (2018). The effect of problematic internet use, social appearance anxiety, and social media use on nursing students' nomophobia levels. CIN: Computers, Informatics, Nursing, 36(12), 589-595.

  5. Baltacı, U. B., Yılmaz, M., & Traş, Z. (2021). The relationships between internet addiction, social appearance anxiety and coping with stress. International Education Studies, 14(5), 135-144.

  6. Berndt, T. J. (2002). Friendship quality and social development. Current Directions in Psychological Science, 11(1), 7-10.

  7. Baumeister, R. F., & Hutton, D. G. (1987). Self-presentation theory: Self-construction and audience pleasing. In B. Mullen & G. R. Goethals (Eds.), Theories of Group Behavior (pp. 71-87). NY: Springer.

  8. Baumeister, R. F., & Leary, M. R. (1995). The need to belong: Desire for interpersonal attachments as a fundamental human motivation. Psychological Bulletin, 117, 497–529.

  9. Boursier, V., & Gioia, F. (2020). Women’s pathological narcissism and its relationship with social appearance anxiety: The mediating role of body shame. Clinical Neuropsychiatry: Journal of Treatment Evaluation, 17(3), 164–174.

  10. Boursier, V., Gioia, F., & Griffiths, M. D. (2020). Do selfie-expectancies and social appearance anxiety predict adolescents’ problematic social media use? Computers in Human Behavior, 110, 106395.

  11. Boursier, V., & Manna, V. (2019). Relational body identities: Body image control through self-portraits–A revision of the Body Image Control in Photos Questionnaire. In R.T. Gopalan (Ed.), Intimacy and Developing Personal Relationships in the Virtual World (pp. 40-63). IGI Global.

  12. Brooks-Gunn, J., & Lewis, M. (1984). The development of early visual self-recognition. Developmental Review, 4(3), 215-239.

  13. Burkley, M., Burkley, E., Stermer, S. P., Andrade, A., Bell, A. C., & Curtis, J. (2014). The ugly duckling effect: Examining fixed versus malleable beliefs about beauty. Social Cognition, 32(5), 466.

  14. Brown, Z., & Tiggemann, M. (2016). Attractive celebrity and peer images on Instagram: Effect on women's mood and body image. Body Image, 19, 37-43.

  15. Cash, T. F., & Fleming, E. C. (2002). The impact of body image experiences: development of the body image quality of life inventory. International Journal of Eating Disorders, 31(4), 455-460.

  16. Dakanalis, A., Carrà, G., Calogero, R., Zanetti, M. A., Volpato, C., Riva, G., ... & Cipresso, P. (2016). The Social Appearance Anxiety Scale in Italian adolescent populations: Construct validation and group discrimination in community and clinical eating disorders samples. Child Psychiatry & Human Development, 47(1), 133-150.

  17. Di Blasi, M., Cavani, P., Pavia, L., Lo Baido, R., La Grutta, S., & Schimmenti, A. (2015). The relationship between self‐Image and social anxiety in adolescence. Child and Adolescent Mental Health, 20(2), 74-80.

  18. Doğan, T. (2009). Bilişsel ve kendini değerlendirme süreçlerinin sosyal anksiyete açısından incelenmesi [Investigation of cognitive and self-evaluation processing in terms of social anxiety]. (Doctoral dissertation, Sakarya University, Turkey). Retrieved from No. 253280)

  19. Doğan, T. (2011). Sosyal görünüş kaygısı ölçeği'nin psikometrik özelliklerinin ergenlerden oluşan bir örneklemde incelenmesi [An investigation of the psychometric properties of the social appearance anxiety scale in an adolescent sample]. Elementary Education Online, 10(1), 12-19.

  20. Doğan, U., & Çolak, T. S. (2016). Self-concealment, social network sites usage, social appearance anxiety, loneliness of high school students: A model testing. Journal of Education and Training Studies, 4(6), 176-183.

  21. Dollarhide, M. (2021). Social media: Definition, effects, and list of top apps. Investopedia. Retrieved from

  22. Eder, D. (1985). The cycle of popularity: Interpersonal relations among female adolescents. Sociology of education, 58, 154-165.

  23. Gioia, F., Griffiths, M. D., & Boursier, V. (2020). Adolescents’ body shame and social networking sites: The mediating effect of body image control in photos. Sex Roles, 83(11), 773-785.

  24. Greenberg, J., Pyszczynski, T., & Stine, P. (1985). Social anxiety and anticipation of future interaction as determinants of the favorability of self-presentation. Journal of Research in Personality, 19(1), 1-11.

  25. Griffiths, M. D. (2010). Trends in technological advance: Implications for sedentary behaviour and obesity in screenagers. Education and Health, 28(2), 35-38.

  26. Habermas, T. (2011). Autobiographical reasoning: Arguing and narrating from a biographical perspective. New Directions for Child and Adolescent Development, 2011(131), 1–17.

  27. Haines, E. L., Deaux, K., & Lofaro, N. (2016). The times they are a-changing … or are they not? A comparison of gender stereotypes, 1983–2014. Psychology of Women Quarterly, 40(3), 353–363.

  28. Hart, E. A., Leary, M. R., & Rejeski, W. J. (1989). Tie measurement of social physique anxiety. Journal of Sport and Exercise Psychology, 11(1), 94-104.

  29. Hart, T.A., Flora, D. B., Palyo, S. A., Fresco, D. M., Holle, C. & Heimberg, R. C. (2008). Development and Examination of the Social Appearance Anxiety Scale. Assessment, 15, 48-59.

  30. Harter, S. (1990). Self and identity development. In S. S. Feldman & G. Elliott (Eds.), At the threshold: The developing adolescent (pp. 352387). Cambridge, MA: Harvard.

  31. Hogan, R (1982). A socioanalytic theory of personality. In M. Page (Ed.), Nebraska Symposium on Motivation (pp. 55-89). Lincoln, NE: University of Nebraska Press.

  32. Holland, G., & Tiggemann, M. (2016). A systematic review of the impact of the use of social networking sites on body image and disordered eating outcomes. Body Image, 17, 100-110.

  33. Chae, J. (2017). Virtual makeover: Selfie-taking and social media use increase selfie-editing frequency through social comparison. Computers in Human Behavior, 66, 370-376.

  34. Karaşar, B., & Öğülmüş, S. (2016). Sosyal Onay Ihtiyacı Ölçeği: Geçerlik ve güvenirlik analizi [Need For Social Approval Scale: The Validity and Reliability]. Ege Eğitim Dergisi, 17(1), 84-104.

  35. Karaşar, B., & Öğülmüş, S. (2020). Sosyal Onay Ihtiyacı Ölçeği’nin ergenler üzerinde geçerlik ve güvenirliğinin incelenmesi [Investigation of the validity and reliability of the Need for Social Approval Scale on Adolescents]. Anadolu Journal of Educational Sciences International, 10(2), 871-886.

  36. Krämer, W., & Sonnberger, H. (1986). The linear regression model under test. Heidelberg: Physica.

  37. Kwon, M., Kim, D. J., Cho, H., and Yang, S. (2013a). The smartphone addiction scale: Development and validation of a short version for adolescents. Plos One, 8(12), 1-7.

  38. Kwon, M., Lee, J. Y., Won, W. Y., Park, J. W., Min, J. A., Hahn, C., Xinyu, G., Choi, J.H & Kim, D. J. (2013b). Development and validation of a smartphone addiction scale (SAS). PloS one, 8(2), e56936.

  39. Leary, M. R., & Kowalski, R. M. (1995). The self-presentation model. In R.G.Heimberg, M.R.Liebowitz, D.A.Hope, & F.R.Schneiner (Eds.), Social phobia: Diagnosis, assessment, and treatment, (pp.94-112). NY: The Guilford Press.

  40. Leary, M. R., Kowalski, R. M., & Campbell, C. D. (1988). Self-presentational concerns and social anxiety: The role of generalized impression expectancies. Journal of research in personality, 22(3), 308-321.

  41. Liu, C.H., Lin, S.H., Pan, Y.C., & Lin, Y. H. (2016). Smartphone gaming and frequent use pattern associated with smartphone addiction. Medicine, 95, e4068.

  42. Martin, H. J., & Greenstein, T. N. (1983). Individual differences in status generalization: Effects of need for social approval, anticipated interpersonal contact, and instrumental task abilities. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 45(3), 641–662.

  43. Nelson, O. (2013). Dark Undercurrents of Teenage Girls’ Selfies. Melbourne, VIC: The Age.

  44. O'Callaghan, F., & Doyle, J. (2001). What is the role of impression management in adolescent cigarette smoking?. Journal of Substance Abuse, 13(4), 459-470.

  45. Pan, Y. C., Chiu, Y. C., & Lin, Y. H. (2020). Systematic review and meta-analysis of epidemiology of internet addiction. Neuroscience & Biobehavioral Reviews, 118, 612-622.

  46. R Core Team (2021). R: A Language and Environment for Statistical Computing (Version 4.1.1). Vienna: R Foundation for Statistical Computing.

  47. Roscoe, B., Diana, M. S., & Brooks, R. H. (1987). Early, middle, and late adolescents' views on dating and factors influencing partner selection. Adolescence, 22(85), 59.

  48. Rudd, N. A., & Lennon, S. J. (2000). Body image and appearance-management behaviors in college women. Clothing and Textiles Research Journal, 18(3), 152-162.

  49. Schlenker, B. R., & Leary, M. R. (1982). Audiences' reactions to self-enhancing, self-denigrating, and accurate self-presentations. Journal of experimental social psychology, 18(1), 89-104.

  50. Schlenker, B. R., & Pontari, B. A. (2000). The strategic control of information: Impression management and self-presentation in daily life. In A. Tesser, R. B. Felson, & J. M. Suls (Eds.), Psychological perspectives on self and identity (pp. 199–232). American Psychological Association.

  51. Senft, T. M., and Baym, N. K. (2015). What does the selfie say? investigating a global phenomenon. Int. J. Commun, 9,1588–1606.

  52. Snyder, M., & Monson, T. C. (1975). Persons, situations, and the control of social behavior. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 32(4), 637.

  53. Şata, M., & Karip, F. (2017). Akıllı telefon bağımlılığı ölçeği-kısa versiyonu’nun ergenler için Türk kültürüne uyarlanması [Turkish Culture Adaptation of Smartphone Addiction Scale-Short Version for Adolescents]. Cumhuriyet International Journal of Education, 6(4), 426–440.

  54. Tocci, M. (2019). Smartphone History and Evolution. Retrieved from

  55. TURKSTAT (2013). Survey on information and communication technology (ICT) usage in households and by individuals. Retrieved from

  56. TURKSTAT (2021). Statistics on Child. Retrieved from

  57. Traş, Z., & Öztemel, K. (2019). Examining the relationships between Facebook intensity, fear of missing out, and smartphone addiction. Addicta, 6, 91-113.

  58. Utts, J.M. (1982). The rainbow test for lack of fit in regression. Communications in Statistics – Theory and Methods 11, 2801–2815.

  59. Warfield K (2014). Making selfies/making self: digital subjectivities in the selfie. In: On-site presentation at the fifth international conference on the image, Berlin, Germany, 29–30 October. Berlin: Freie Universität

  60. Wellman, H. M. (2018). Theory of mind: The state of the art. European Journal of Developmental Psychology, 15(6), 1–28.

  61. Yang, S.Y., Wang, Y.C., Lee, Y.C., Lin, Y.L., Hsieh, P.L., & Lin, P.H. (2022). Does smartphone addiction, social media addiction, and/or internet game addiction affect adolescents’ interpersonal interactions? Healthcare, 10, 963.

  62. Zimmer-Gembeck, M. J., Webb, H. J., Farrell, L. J., & Waters, A. M. (2018). Girls’ and boys’ trajectories of appearance anxiety from age 10 to 15 years are associated with earlier maturation and appearance-related teasing. Development and Psychopathology, 30(1), 337-350.

  63. Zivnuska, S., Carlson, D. S., Carlson, J. R., Harris, R. B., & Harris, K. J. (2019). Investigating the impacts of regulatory focus and political skill within a social media context. Computers in Human Behavior, 91, 151-156.

bottom of page