top of page
Asian Institute of Research, Journal Publication, Journal Academics, Education Journal, Asian Institute
Asian Institute of Research, Journal Publication, Journal Academics, Education Journal, Asian Institute

Education Quarterly Reviews

ISSN 2621-5799

asia institute of research, journal of education, education journal, education quarterly reviews, education publication, education call for papers
asia institute of research, journal of education, education journal, education quarterly reviews, education publication, education call for papers
asia institute of research, journal of education, education journal, education quarterly reviews, education publication, education call for papers
asia institute of research, journal of education, education journal, education quarterly reviews, education publication, education call for papers
open access

Published: 23 December 2022

The Ecology of Early Development: Fathers’ Home Involvement and Child’s Later Educational Outcomes

Oguzcan Cig, Ithel Jones

Tokat Gaziosmanpasa University, Florida State University

asia institute of research, journal of education, education journal, education quarterly reviews, education publication, education call for papers
pdf download

Download Full-Text Pdf



Pages: 424-439

Keywords: Cognitive Development, ECLS-B, Father Involvement, Latent Class Analysis, Young Children


This study examined the relationship between young children’s cognitive development and fathers’ engagement in early childhood. The study examined fathers’ home engagement patterns based on literacy, play, and caregiving activities when their children were 9-month-old and these patterns of engagement in 9-month-old were related to children’s cognitive development in preschool. Latent class analysis (LCA) procedure was used to create subgroups/classes of fathers based on their actual engagement. The study employed multiple data sources from Early Childhood Longitudinal Study-Birth Cohort (ECLS-B). The data sources include a self-administered resident father survey, direct child assessment, and parent interviews. The results of the study suggested that there were five distinct classes of fathers based on their actual engagement. A total of 6.200 fathers were included in the analysis to create father classes. In the regression analysis, a total 0f 4.800 children were included. Although father classes were mostly similar, there were two distinct father classes with different actual engagement patterns based on child’s gender. Although, the class of fathers with the highest likelihood of engaging their infant girls had a negative effect on girls’ literacy and mathematics scale score in preschool, the results regarding children’s later educational outcomes were mixed.


  1. Amato, P. R. (1994). Father-child relations, mother-child relations, and offspring psychological well-being in early adulthood. Journal of Marriage and the Family, 56, 1031–1042.

  2. Barbeta, M., & Cano, T. (2017). Toward a new model of fatherhood? Discourses on paternal involvement in urban Spain. Revista Española de Investigaciones Sociológicas, 1(159), 13–30.

  3. Bronfenbrenner, U. (1989). Who cares for children?Paris: United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization.

  4. Bronfenbrenner, U., & Evans, G. W. (2000). Developmental Science in the 21st Century: Emerging Questions, Theoretical Models, Research Designs and Empirical Findings. Social Development, 9(1), 115-125.

  5. Bronfenbrenner, U., & Morris, P. A. (1998). The ecology of developmental processes. In R. M. Lerner (Ed.), Handbook of Child Psychology (pp. 993–1028). New York: Wiley.

  6. Bronfenbrenner U., & Morris, P. A. (2007). The Bioecological Model of Human Development. In R.M. Lerner & W. Damon, W. (Eds), Handbook of Child Psychology (pp. 793-828). Hoboken, NJ: Wiley.

  7. Cabrera, N. J. (2020). Father involvement, father-child relationship, and attachment in the early years. Attachment & Human Development, 22(1), 134-138.

  8. Carlson, M. J., & Magnuson, K. A. (2011). Low-Income Fathers’ Influence on Children. The ANNALS of the American Academy of Political and Social Science, 635(1), 95–116.

  9. Chen, X., Liu, M., & Li, D. (2000). Parental warmth, control and indulgence and their relations to adjustment in Chinese children: A longitudinal study. Journal of Family Psychology, 14, 401-419. doi: 10.1037//0893-3200.14.3.401

  10. Collins, L. M., & Lanza, S.T. (2010) Latent Class and Latent Transition Analysis With Applications in the Social, Behavioral and Health Sciences. Wiley, New York. - References—Scientific Research Publishing. (t.y.).

  11. Connors, L. J., & Epstein, J. L. (1995). Parent and school partnerships. In M. Bornstein, Handbook of parenting (pp. 437-458). Mahwah, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates.

  12. Cowan, P. A., Cowan, C. P., Pruett, M. K., Pruett, K., & Wong, J. J. (2009). Promoting Fathers’ Engagement With Children: Preventive Interventions for Low-Income Families. Journal of Marriage and Family, 71(3), 663-679.

  13. Curran, P. J., & Hussong, A. M. (2002). Structural equation modeling of repeated measures data: Latent curve analysis. In D. S. Moskowitz & S. L. Hershberger (Eds.), Modeling intraindividual variability with repeated measures data (pp. 59-85). Lawrence Erlbaum: Mahwah, NJ.

  14. Del Bono, E., Francesconi, M., Kelly, Y., & Sacker, A. (2016). Early maternal investment and early child outcomes. The Economic Journal, 126(596), 96–135.

  15. Diniz, E., Brandão, T., Monteiro, L., & Veríssimo, M. (2021). Father Involvement During Early Childhood: A Systematic Review of the Literature. Journal of Family Theory & Review, 13(1), 77-99.

  16. Fieuws, S., & Verbeke, G. (2004). Joint modeling of multivariate longitudinal profiles: Pitfalls of the random effects approach. Statistics in Medicine, 23, 3093–3104. https://doi: 10.1002/sim.1885

  17. Fomby, P., & Musick, K. (2017). Mothers’ time, the parenting package and links to healthy child development. Journal of Marriage and Family, 80(1), 166–181.

  18. Freeman, H., Newland, L. A., & Coyle, D. D. (2010). New directions in father attachment. Early Child Development and Care, 180(1-2), 1-8.

  19. Furstenberg, F., Jr., & Christopher C. W. 2000. Intergenerational Transmission of Fathering Roles in at Risk Families. Marriage and Family Review, 29(2-3):181-201.

  20. Futris, T. G., & Schoppe-Sullivan, S. J. (2007). Mothers’ perceptions of barriers, parenting alliance, and adolescent fathers’ engagement with their children. Family Relations, 56, 258-269.

  21. Hsin, A., & Felfe, C. (2014). When does time matter? Maternal employment, children’s time with parents, and child development. Demography, 51,1867–1894.

  22. Lamb, M. (2010). How do fathers influence children’s development? Let me count the ways. In M. Lamb (Ed.). The role of the father in child development(pp. 1-27). New York, Wiley.

  23. Lamb, M. E., Pleck, J. H., Charnov, E. L., & Levine, J. A. (1987). A Biosocial Perspective on Paternal Behavior and Involvement. In Parenting Across the Life Span. Routledge.

  24. Leedy, P., & Ormrod, J. (2001). Practical Research Planning and Design. 7th Edition, Merrill Prentice Hall and SAGE Publications, Upper Saddle River, NJ and Thousand Oaks, CA. Scientific Research Publishing.

  25. Milkie, M., Nomaguchi, K., & Denny, K. (2015). Does the amount of time mothers spend with children or adolescents matter? Journal of Marriage and Family, 77(2), 355–372.

  26. National Association for the Education of Young Children. (NAEYC, 2010). Elementary and secondary education act reauthorization. Washington, DC: NAEYC.

  27. National Center for Education Statistics. Early Childhood Longitudinal Study, Birth Cohort (ECLS-B), kindergarten 2006 and 2007: Data file user’s manual (NCES 2010-010). Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office.

  28. NICHD Early Child Care Research Network. (2004). Fathers’ and mothers’ parenting behavior and beliefs as predictors of children’s social adjustment in the transition to school. Journal of Family Psychology, 18, 628-638. https:// doi: 10.1037/0893-3200.18.4.628

  29. Olavarri´a, J. (2003). Men at home? Child rearing and housekeeping among Chilean working class fathers. In M. C. Guttman (Ed.), Changing men and masculinities in Latin America (pp. 333-350). London: Duke University Press.

  30. Palkovitz, R. (2019). Expanding Our Focus From Father Involvement to Father–Child Relationship Quality. Journal of Family Theory & Review, 11(4), 576-591.

  31. Pleck, E. H., & Pleck, J. H. (1997). Fatherhood ideals in the United States: Historical dimensions. In The role of the father in child development, 3rd ed (pp. 33-48). John Wiley & Sons Inc.

  32. Powell, D. R. (1993). Supporting parent-child relationships in the early years: Lessons learned and yet to be learned. In T. H. Brubaker, Family relations: Challenges for the future, (pp. 79-97). Newbury Park: Sage.

  33. Raver, C. C., Gershoff, E. T., & Aber, J. L. (2007). Testing Equivalence of Mediating Models of Income, Parenting, and School Readiness for White, Black, and Hispanic Children in a National Sample. Child Development, 78(1), 96-115. https://doi:10.1111/j.1467-8624.2007.00987.x

  34. Russo, F. (2011). Correlational Data, Causal Hypotheses, and Validity. Journal for General Philosophy of Science / Zeitschrift für Allgemeine Wissenschaftstheorie, 42(1), 85-107.

  35. Shonkoff, J. P., and Phillips D. A. (2000). From neurons to neighborhoods: The science of early childhood development. Washington, DC: National Academies Press.

  36. Takeuchi, H., Taki, Y., Hashizume, H., Asano, K., Asano, M., Sassa, Y., Kawashima, R. (2015). The impact of parent–child interaction on brain structures: Cross-sectional and longitudinal analyses. Journal of Neuroscience, 35, 2233–2245. https://doi: 10.1523/JNEUROSCI.0598-14.2015

  37. Volling, B., & Belsky, J. (1991). Multiple determinants of father involvement during infancy in dual-earner and single-earner families. Journal of Marriage and the Family, 53(2), 461-474.

  38. Warin, J., Solomon, Y., Lewis, C., & Langford, W. (1999). Fathers, work and family life. London: Family Policy Studies Centre.

bottom of page