top of page
Asian Institute of Research, Journal Publication, Journal Academics, Education Journal, Asian Institute
Asian Institute of Research, Journal Publication, Journal Academics, Education Journal, Asian Institute

Education Quarterly Reviews

ISSN 2621-5799

asia institute of research, journal of education, education journal, education quarterly reviews, education publication, education call for papers
asia institute of research, journal of education, education journal, education quarterly reviews, education publication, education call for papers
asia institute of research, journal of education, education journal, education quarterly reviews, education publication, education call for papers
asia institute of research, journal of education, education journal, education quarterly reviews, education publication, education call for papers
open access

Published: 19 August 2022

The Prediction of Psychological Resilience by Fear of Happiness and Ruminative Thoughts

İsa Yücel İşgör, Yasin Yılmaz, Betül G. Doğan Laçin

Hatay Mustafa Kemal Üniversitesi, Turkey

asia institute of research, journal of education, education journal, education quarterly reviews, education publication, education call for papers
pdf download

Download Full-Text Pdf



Pages: 195-206

Keywords: Fear of Happiness, Ruminative Thought, Psychological Resilience


In this study, it was investigated whether fear of happiness and ruminative thinking predict psychological resilience in university students. In addition, the predictive level of fear of happiness and ruminative thinking of psychological resilience subscales was investigated. Finally, it examines whether there is a significant difference between students' fear of happiness, ruminative thought and psychological resilience levels according to gender. The population of the study is the students studying at the faculty of education of a university located in the Mediterranean region of Turkey in the fall semester of the 2021-2022 academic year. The sample group consisted of 296 students, 212 (71.6%) girls and 84 (28.4%) boys, aged between 17 and 34 (x̄=21.81), selected by the easily accessible sampling method. For data collection, a personal information form created by the researchers, Fear of Happiness Scale, Ruminative Thought Style Scale and Psychological Resilience Scale for Adults were used. Findings obtained in the study: It was found that fear of happiness and ruminative thinking together negatively predicted resilience at a significant level. Fear of happiness and ruminative thought explain approximately 12% of the variance in students' resilience scores. Regarding the predictive level of fear of happiness and ruminative thinking of the sub-dimensions of psychological resilience; self-perception (19.9% of variance), future perception (10% of variance), social competence (5% of variance), family adjustment (3% of variance), and social resources (3% of variance) are negative significant predictors. Finally, there is a significant difference between students' psychological resilience and self-perception sub-dimensions of psychological resilience according to gender.


  1. Abak, E. (2019). The relationship between ruminative thinking style, body image, and social appearance anxiety with romantic relationship and partner-oriented obsessive-compulsive symptoms. (Unpublished Master's Thesis), Ankara Yıldırım Beyazıt University Institute of Social Sciences.

  2. Arslan, G. (2015). Psychometric properties of the Adult Resilience Scale (YPSS): Validity and reliability study. Aegean Journal of Education, 16(2), 344-357.

  3. Atarbay, S. (2017). The effect of social anxiety levels of university students studying in different departments on their psychological resilience. Published Master Thesis, Istanbul University, Istanbul.

  4. Aydin, B. (2010). Examination of the relationship between the emotional intelligence and hope levels of university students and their psychological resilience. Unpublished Master Thesis, Karadeniz Technical University, Trabzon.

  5. Basım, H. N., and Cetin, F. (2011). Reliability and validity study of the resilience scale for adults. Turkish Journal of Psychiatry, 22(2), 104-114.

  6. Baş, Z., Baş, A., Kalafat, A., and Dilmaç, B. (2021). Examination of the predictive relationship between emotional intelligence, fear of happiness and humor styles in adolescents. OPUS International Journal of Society Studies, 17(33), 154-173.

  7. Batan, S. N. (2016). The effects of psychological resilience and religious coping on life satisfaction in adults. Unpublished Doctoral Thesis, Marmara University, Institute of Social Sciences, Istanbul.

  8. Benard, B. (1991). Fostering resiliency in kids: Protective factors in the family, school, and community.

  9. Bonanno, G. A. (2004). Loss, trauma, and human resilience: have we underestimated the human capacity to thrive after extremely aversive events? American Psychologist, 59(1), 20.

  10. Bozgeyikli, H., and Sat, A. (2014). Investigation of Psychological Resilience and Organizational Citizenship Behaviors of Teachers in Terms of Some Variables: Private School Example. Hak İş International Journal of Labor and Society, 3(5), 172-191.

  11. Brinker, J. K., and Dozois, D. J. (2009). Ruminative thought style and depressed mood. Journal of clinical Psychology, 65(1), 1-19.

  12. Bugay, A., and Erdur-Baker, O. (2011). Examination of rumination level according to gender and age. Turkish Psychological Counseling and Guidance Journal, 4(36), 191-199.

  13. Ciesla, J. A., and Roberts, J. E. (2002). Self-directed thought and response to treatment for depression: A preliminary investigation. Journal of Cognitive Psychotherapy, 16(4), 435-453.

  14. Capar, A. (2017). The relationship between resilience and suicide probability in patients with psychiatric disorders. (Unpublished Master's Thesis), Gaziantep University, Institute of Health Sciences, Gaziantep.

  15. Demirci, İ., Ekşi, H., Kardas, S., and Dinçer, D. (2016). The validity and reliability of the Turkish version of the Fear of Happiness Scale. Kastamonu Journal of Education, 24(4), 2057-2072.

  16. Dundar, U. (2016). Examining the relationship between high school students' psychological resilience and anger expression styles: The case of Gaziosmanpaşa. (Unpublished Master's Thesis), Nisantası University, Institute of Social Sciences.

  17. Efe, I. A. (2018). The relationship between negative life events, psychological counseling, rumination and stress. Ankara University Journal of Faculty of Educational Sciences (JFES), 51(2), 95-119.

  18. Elmas, I. (2021). An Investigation of the Variables Predicting Teachers' Fear of Happiness. (Unpublished Master Thesis), Van.

  19. Erdur, Ö., Ozguluk, S. B., Turan, N., and Danısık Demirci, N. (2009). Rumination and anger/anger expression styles as predictors of psychological symptoms in adolescents. Turkish Journal of Psychological Counseling and Guidance, 4(32), 43-53.

  20. Flett, G. L., Madorsky, D., Hewitt, P. L., and Heisel, M. J. (2002). Perfectionism cognitions, rumination, and psychological distress. Journal of Rational-Emotive and Cognitive-Behavior Therapy, 20(1), 33-47.

  21. Friborg, O., Barlaug, D., Martinussen, M., Rosenvinge, J. H., and Hjemdal, O. (2005). Resilience in relation to personality and intelligence. International journal of methods in psychiatric research, 14(1), 29-42.

  22. Friborg, O., Hjemdal, O., Rosenvinge, J. H., and Martinussen, M. (2003). A new rating scale for adult resilience: what are the central protective resources behind healthy adjustment? International Journal of Methods in Psychiatric Research, 12(2), 65-76.

  23. Gilbert, P., McEwan, K., Gibbons, L., Chotai, S., Duarte, J., and Matos, M. (2012). Fears of compassion and happiness in relation to alexithymia, mindfulness, and self-criticism. Psychology and Psychotherapy: Theory, Research and Practice, 85(4), 374-390.

  24. Guastella, A. J., and Molds, M. L. (2007). The impact of rumination on sleep quality following a stressful life event. Personality and Individual Differences, 42(6), 1151-1162.

  25. Hadianfard, H., Ashjazadeh, N., Feridoni, S., and Farjam, E. (2015). The role of psychological resilience, severity of disease and treatment adherence in the prediction of health-related quality of life in patients with multiple sclerosis. Neurology Asia, 20(3).

  26. Jose, P. E., and Brown, I. (2008). When does the gender difference in rumination begin? Gender and age differences in the use of rumination by adolescents. Journal of Youth and Adolescence, 37(2), 180-192.

  27. Joshanloo, M. (2013). The influence of fear of happiness beliefs on responses to the satisfaction with life scale. Personality and Individual Differences, 54(5), 647-651.

  28. Joshanloo, M. (2014). Eastern conceptualizations of happiness: Fundamental differences with western views. Journal of Happiness Studies, 15(2), 475-493.

  29. Joshanloo, M., and Weijers, D. (2014). Aversion to happiness across cultures: A review of where and why people are averse to happiness. Journal of Happiness Studies, 15(3), 717-735.

  30. Karademir, T., and Mahmut, A. (2019). Investigation of psychological resilience levels of university athletes. Kahramanmaras Sutcu İmam University Journal of Social Sciences, 16(2), 803-816.

  31. Karatepe, H. (2010). Turkish adaptation, validity and reliability study of the ruminative thinking style scale. Unpublished specialization thesis, TR Ministry of Health, Istanbul.

  32. Kim, J. S., Jin, M. J., Jung, W., Hahn, S. W., and Lee, S.-H. (2017). Rumination as a mediator between childhood trauma and adulthood depression/anxiety in non-clinical participants. Frontiers in Psychology,8, 1597.

  33. Kobasa, S. C. (1979). Stressful life events, personality, and health: an inquiry into hardiness. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 37(1), 1.

  34. Kurtarankartal, T. (2019). Investigation of the Relationship between the Meaning of Life and Ruminative Thought Styles of University Students.Eastern Mediterranean University (EMU)-Eastern Mediterranean University (EMU).

  35. Kucukktatlidil, S. (2016). Investigation of psychological resilience and stress coping strategies of people working in the insurance sector in terms of some variables. (Unpublished Master's Thesis), Nisantası University, Institute of Social Sciences, Istanbul.

  36. Lam, D., Smith, N., Checkley, S., Rijsdijk, F., and Sham, P. (2003). Effect of neuroticism, response style and information processing on depression severity in a clinically depressed sample. Psychological Medicine, 33(3), 469-479.

  37. Lambrou, P. (2014). Is fear of happiness real. Psychology Today, https://www. psychologytoday. com/intl/blog/codesjoy/201405/is-fear-happiness-real.(Accessed 24.6. 2019).

  38. Luthar, S. S., Cicchetti, D., and Becker, B. (2000). The construct of resilience: A critical evaluation and guidelines for future work. Child Development, 71(3), 543-562.

  39. Lyubomirsky, S., and Nolen-Hoeksema, S. (1993). Self-perpetuating properties of dysphoric rumination. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 65(2), 339.

  40. Lyvers, M., Ryan, N., and Thorberg, F. A. (2022). Alexithymia, negative moods, and fears of positive emotions. Current Psychology, 1-10.

  41. Matthews, G., and Wells, A. (2004). Rumination, depression, and metacognition: The S-REF model. Depressive rumination: Nature, Theory and Treatment, 125-151.

  42. Michael, T., Halligan, S. L., Clark, D. M., and Ehlers, A. (2007). Rumination in posttraumatic stress disorder. Depression and Anxiety,24(5), 307-317

  43. Morrison, R., and O'Connor, R. C. (2008). A systematic review of the relationship between rumination and suicidality. Suicide and Life-Threatening Behavior, 38(5), 523-538.

  44. Muhtar, H. (2016). Fear of Happiness-Exploring Happiness in Collectivistic and Individualistic Cultures.

  45. Neziroglu, G. (2010). Investigation of the relationships between rumination, experiential avoidance and problem solving skills and depressive symptoms. (Unpublished Master's Thesis), Hacettepe University, Institute of Social Sciences, Ankara.

  46. Nolen-Hoeksema, S. (1991). Responses to depression and their effects on the duration of depressive episodes. Journal of Abnormal Psychology, 100(4), 569.

  47. Nolen-Hoeksema, S., Parker, L. E., and Larson, J. (1994). Ruminative coping with depressed mood following loss. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 67(1), 92.

  48. Nolen-Hoeksema, S., Stice, E., Wade, E., and Bohon, C. (2007). Reciprocal relations between rumination and bulimic, substance abuse, and depressive symptoms in female adolescents. Journal of Abnormal Psychology, 116(1), 198.

  49. Nolen-Hoeksema, S., Wisco, B. E., and Lyubomirsky, S. (2008). Rethinking rumination. Perspectives on Psychological Science, 3(5), 400-424.

  50. Ozcan, E. (2021). The mediating role of ruminative thinking in the relationship between self-compassion and psychological symptoms. Graduate School of Education.

  51. Ozkan, E. (2020). Investigation of the Relationship Between Fear of Happiness and Personality Traits in University Students. (Master), Gazi University Institute of Educational Sciences, Ankara.

  52. Raes, F., and Hermans, D. (2008). On the mediating role of subtypes of rumination in the relationship between childhood emotional abuse and depressed mood: Brooding versus reflection. Depression and Anxiety, 25(12), 1067-1070.

  53. Sarı, T., and Çakır, G. (2016). Examining the relationship between fear of happiness and subjective and psychological well-being. Journal of Education and Training Research, 5(25), 222-229.

  54. Sezgin, F. (2012). Investigation of psychological resilience levels of primary school teachers. Kastamonu Journal of Education, 20(2), 489-502.

  55. Smith, J. M., and Alloy, L. B. (2009). A roadmap to rumination: A review of the definition, assessment, and conceptualization of this multifaceted construct. Clinical Psychology Review, 29(2), 116-128.

  56. Şar, V., Türk, T., and Öztürk, E. (2019). Fear of happiness among college students: The role of gender, childhood psychological trauma, and dissociation. Indian Journal of Psychiatry, 61(4), 389.

  57. Tekke, M., and Özer, B. (2019). Fear of happiness: religious and psychological implications in Turkey. Mental Health, Religion & Culture, 22(7), 686-693.

  58. Terzi, S. (2005). The resilience model of subjective well-being.Unpublished PhD Thesis. Ankara Gazi University Institute of Social Sciences.

  59. Terzi, S. (2008). The relationship between university students' psychological resilience and their perceived social support. Turkish Psychological Counseling and Guidance Journal, 3(29), 1-11.

  60. Togo, O. T., and Jazz, C. (2019). The relationship between positivity and fear of happiness in people applying to graduate programs in physical education and sports department. Asian Journal of Education and Training, 5(1), 93-96.

  61. Tumlu, G. U., and Recepoglu, E. (2013). The relationship between psychological resilience and life satisfaction of university academic staff. Journal of Higher Education and Science (3), 205-213.

  62. Yakıcı, E. G. (2017). Life satisfaction and loneliness as predictive variables in the resilience levels of emerging adults. Necmettin Erbakan University (Turkey).

  63. Yaya, B., Deniz, E., and Yılmaz, B. (2019). Examination of mobbing, psychosomatic symptoms and ruminative thinking style in academics according to sociodemographic variables. Cyprus Turkish Journal of Psychiatry and Psychology, 1(3), 139-144.

  64. Yildirim, M. (2019). Mediating role of resilience in the relationships between fear of happiness and affect balance, satisfaction with life, and flourishing. Europe's Journal of Psychology, 15(2)

bottom of page