top of page
Asian Institute of Research, Journal Publication, Journal Academics, Education Journal, Asian Institute
Asian Institute of Research, Journal Publication, Journal Academics, Education Journal, Asian Institute

Economics and Business

Quarterly Reviews

ISSN 2775-9237 (Online)

asian institute research, jeb, journal of economics and business, economics journal, accunting journal, business journal, managemet journal
asian institute research, jeb, journal of economics and business, economics journal, accunting journal, business journal, managemet journal
asian institute research, jeb, journal of economics and business, economics journal, accunting journal, business journal, managemet journal
asian institute research, jeb, journal of economics and business, economics journal, accunting journal, business journal, managemet journal
open access

Published: 18 October 2022

“Killing the Golden Goose?”: FDI in Poland 2022

Richard J. Hunter, Jr., Hector R. Lozada

Seton Hall University, University of Tulsa

asian institute research, jeb, journal of economics and business, economics journal, accunting journal, business journal, management journal

Download Full-Text Pdf



Pages: 93-110

Keywords: Foreign Direct Investment, Polish Tech Bridges, Investment Factors, Investment Sectors


This article is a follow up on recent events that relate to participation in foreign direct investment (FDI) activities in Poland in light of the Law on Freedom of Economic Activity (LFEA), the Act on Control of Certain Investments and the Amendments thereto, which provide for the rules on foreign participation in the Polish market and later restrictions on the purchase of Polish assets by discrete categories of investors. The article builds on research published in 2021 relating to the existence and importance of FDI in the Polish economy that had been negatively affected by a series of challenges and paradoxes in Polish society.


  1. American Chamber of Commerce in Poland (2021). Greenfield investments in Poland. American Chamber of Commerce (May 5). Available:

  2. Amnesty International (2022). Poland: Regression on abortion access harms women. Amnesty International (January 26). Available:

  3. Bogdanowicz, P. (2020). How to save a Supreme Court in a rule of law crisis: The Polish perspective. European Constitutional Law Review, 16: 306-327.

  4. Bojarski, L. (2021). Civil society organizations for and with the courts and judges—Struggle for the rule of law and judicial independence: The case of Poland 1976-2020. German Law Journal, 22: 1344-1384.

  5. Cetera, W. (2022). Polish printing industry, progress, pandemic, prospects. Kielce, Poland: National Museum.

  6. Chapman, A. (2017). Pluralism under attack: The assault on press freedom in Poland. Freedom House (June 2017). Available:

  7. Cienski, J. (2022). Poland warns it will turn cannons on the EU in rule of law dispute. Politico (August 8). Available:

  8. Ciobanu, C. (2021). Poland in 2021: Bracing for a grim year. Reporting Democracy (January 12). Available:

  9. Davies, N. (2001). Heart of Europe: The past in Poland’s present. New York: Oxford University Press.

  10. Dordevic, N. (2021). Why gaming is set to become Poland’s national brand. Emerging Europe (February 2). Available:

  11. Drapinska, A. (2020). Consumerism in Poland: A fact or myth? Most Wiedzy: 59-72. Available:,153270-1

  12. Dworak, E. (2020). The innovation gap between the Polish economy and the European Union. Comparative Economic Research. Central and Eastern Europe, 23(3): 63-73.

  13. Erlanger, S. & Pronczuk, M. (2021). Poland escalates fight with Europe over the rule of law. New York Times. Available:

  14. Euronews (2018). Poland’s skilled workers attract global business. Euro News (February 2). Available:

  15. European Commission (2022). EU cohesion policy: Commission adopts EURO76.5 billion partnership agreement with Poland for 2021-2027 (June 30). Available:

  16. Fleming, S. & Foy, H. (2021). Poland and Hungary risk EU aid over human rights; Cohesion funds, financial leverage pressure is building for the use of tougher financial powers against the two errant states. Financial Times (September 23). Available:

  17. Gaydarska, N. (2009). The legality of the “Golden Share” under EC law. Maastricht Faculty of Law Working Paper 5(9). Available:'Golden_Share'_under_EC_Law

  18. Gorynia, M., Nowak, J., & Wolniak, R. (2011). Investing in a transition economy. In The changing nature of doing business in transition economies: 148-182. London, U.K.: Springer (Palgrave MacMillan).

  19. Hayakawa, K., Lee, H-H, & Park, C-Y. (2022). The effect of Covid-19 on foreign direct investment. Asian Development Bank, ABD Economics Working Paper Series, 653 (March 2022). Available:

  20. Hargrove, J. (2022). The big deal about cloud regions. Available:

  21. Hunter, R.J. (2017). Charting a new path for Poland or turning its back on more than a quarter century of progress? Archives of Business Research, 5(2): 20-30.

  22. Hunter, R.J. (2019). A comprehensive view of Poland and foreign direct investment: Pathway to development or flashpoint to conflict with the European Union. Global Journal of Economics and Finance, 3(1): 1-17.

  23. Hunter, R.J. (2020). A primer on Polish government and politics. The European Journal of Business and Management, 12(5): 1-13.

  24. Hunter, R.J. & Domanska, M. (2016). Poland: a country study: “Europe’s poster child to Europe’s problem child.” Issues in Economics and Business, 2(1): 15-27.

  25. Hunter, R.J. & Lozada, H.R. (2021). Foreign direct investment in Poland: Opportunities and pitfalls. British Journal of Economics, Finance and Management Sciences, 18(1): 1-16.

  26. Hunter, R.J. & Ryan, L.V.+ (2012). An update on Polish foreign direct investment—The story of Intrall Rus: A case study on transformation. International Journal of Academic Research in Business and Social Science, 2(1): 594-603.

  27. Hunter, R.J. & Ryan, L.V.+ (2013). Foreign direct investment 2013-2014. Destination Poland? An update and appraisal. Research in Applied Economics, 5(4): 13-21.

  28. Hussein, J., Cottingham, J., Nowicka, W., & Kismodi, E. (2018). Abortion in Poland: Politics, progression and regression. Reproductive Health Matters, 26(52): 11-14.

  29. Jankowska, B., Stalinski, A., & Trapczynski, P. (2021). Public policy support and the competitiveness of the renewable energy sector – The Case of Poland. Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews, 149(c): Available:

  30. Klaus, W. (2017). Security first: The new right-wing government in Poland and its policy towards immigrants and refugees. Surveillance and Society, 15(3/4): 523-528.

  31. KPMG (2018). The luxury goods market in Poland. Available:

  32. KIS (Krajowa Inteligentna Specjalizacja) (2022). A new list of 15 national smart specialisations. Available:

  33. Klimas, P. (2016). Organizational culture and coopetition: An exploratory study of the features, models and role of the Polish aviation industry. Industrial Marketing Management, 53: 91-102,

  34. Krajewska, A. (2021). Connecting reproductive rights, democracy, and the rule of law: Lessons from Poland in times of Covid-19. German Law Journal, 22: 1072-1097.

  35. Kulig, T. (2021). Poland’s IT business is booming. How can you benefit from that? The Software House (January 14). Available:

  36. Kuzmierkiewicz, W., Rachon, J., & Hrynkiewicz, G. (2019). Pharmaceutical industry and its influence on the state of healthcare in Poland, in view of the local innovative potential. Polish Technical Review, 2: 5-8.

  37. Leonski, W. (2022). The scope of the activity carried out by business support organizations in Poland. European Research Studies Journal, XXV(1): 583-592.

  38. Moran, M.T. (2018). Criminal defamation and public insult laws in the Republic of Poland: The curtailing of freedom of expression. Michigan State International Law Review, 26: 575-624.

  39. Nurczyk, E. (2017). Do you have these skills needed in Poland? Careers in Poland (July 26). Available:

  40. OECD (2021). A skilled workforce for strong, sustainable and balanced growth. OECD. Available:

  41. OECD (2022). Economic forecast summary. Poland economic snapshot. OECD (June). Available:

  42. PAIH (2018). Polish tech bridges – We build marketing strategy for SME expansion. PAIH (February 29). Available:

  43. PAIH (2022). Human capital and country statistics. Available:

  44. Pawlak, K., Weiss, V., & Kulak, P. (2020). Poland: New foreign investments screening rules in Poland. OECD. Available:

  45. Pieriegud, J. (2018). The development of digital distribution channels in Poland’s retail pharmaceutical market in W. Piotrowicz & R. Cuthbertson (eds), Exploring Omnichannel Retailing: 139-167.

  46. Pietrasik, J. & Michalski, J. (2022). Foreign direct investment regimes: Poland. International Comparative Legal Guides. Available:

  47. Pietrzak, M.B., Iglinski, B., & Kujawski, W. (2046). Energy transition in Poland- assessment of the renewable energy sector. Energy Transition and Social Innovation, 14(8): 2-23.

  48. Piotrowski, M. & Jakubowski, R. (2019). The new face of science education in Poland. Edukacja, 1(148): 40-48. Available:

  49. Plock, S. (2020). Abortion rights and anti-abortion protestors clash in Poland following strict new laws. Newsweek (October 27, 2020). Available:

  50. Picheta, R., Osinski, A., & Mahmood, Z. (2020). Poland moves to near-total ban on abortion, sparking protests. CNN (World) (October 23, 2021). Available:

  51. Przezdziecka, E. (2021). FDI in Poland. American Chamber of Commerce in Poland (Presentation) (March 24). Available:

  52. Rapacki, R. & Prochniak, M. (2021). Development of the Polish economy in 2010-2018 compared with other EU countries. In A.M. Kowalski & M.A. Waresa eds). Poland competitiveness report 2020. Focus on service sector: Chapter 3: 45-67. Warsaw: SGH Warsaw School of Economics. Available:

  53. Rappy, A. (2022). War on retrogression in gender equality: The implications of Poland’s systematic failure to protect fundamental human rights and the need for international intervention. Georgetown Journal of Gender and Law, 23: 511-534.

  54. Rech, W. (2018). Some remarks on the EU’s action on the erosion of the rule of law in Poland and Hungary. Journal of Contemporary European Studies, 26(3): 334-345.

  55. Reid, G. (2021). Poland breaches EU obligations over LGBT, women’s rights. Gazeta Wyborcza (February 24). Available:

  56. Reynolds, O. (2021). The fastest growing economies in the world (2019-2023). Focus Economics (February 16). Available:

  57. Roache, M. (2019). Poland is holding massive pride parades. But how far have LGBTQ rights really come? Time (July 3, 2019: Available:

  58. Rodl & Partner (2020). Successfully investing in Poland. Insights (May 20). Available:

  59. Rutkowski, E. (2021). Medical devices and equipment in Poland: Report 2021. Warsaw, Poland: Polish Agency for Enterprise Development. Available:

  60. Sabatino, G. (2021). The “golden power’ on foreign investments in EU law in light of the Covid crisis. European Company Law, 18(6): 189-195.

  61. Sadowski, A., Dobrowolska, B., Skowron, B., & Bujak, A. (2021). Polish textile and apparel industry: Global supply chain management perspective. Autex Research Journal, 21(3): 262-271.

  62. Sas, A. (2022a), Number of employees in the pharmaceutical sector in Poland 2008-2020. Statista (March 8). Available:

  63. Sas, A. (2022b). Cosmetics market in Poland – Statistics & facts. Statista (March 10).

  64. Available:

  65. Sas, A. (2022c). Export value of furniture from Poland, by destination. Statista (August 12). Available:

  66. Szabados, T. (2019). Recent golden shares cases in the jurisprudence of the Court of Justice of the European Union. Cambridge University Press (on-line) (March 6). Available:

  67. Trading Economics (2022). Ease of doing business. Trading Economics. Available:

  68. UNCTAD (2020). UNCTAD's 2020 world investment report. UNCTAD (May 30). Available:

  69. UNCTAD (2021). World investment report 20-21. UNCTAD (April 1). Available:

  70. United States Department of State (2019). 2018 Investment Climate Statements: Poland (Executive Summary). United States Department of State. Available:

  71. Wanat, G. (2022). Gaming in Poland – Statistics & facts. Statista (March 4). Available:

  72. Wes, M. & Bodewig C. (2016). Poland’s education system: Leading in Europe. The World Bank (January 22). Available:

  73. Wiacek, M. (2021). Legal position of administrative courts in Poland. International Community Law Review, 23(5): 526-539.

  74. Wnukowski, M.S. & Geiss, O. (2022). Polish FDI rules – One year after. The National Law Review (September 2), XII(245). Available:

  75. Wozniak, G. (2021). How to do business effectively in Poland. Grzegorz Wozniak Blog (December 17). Available:

  76. Wozniak, M., Duda, J., Gasior, A., & Bernat, T. (2019). Relations of GDP growth and development of SMEs in Poland. Precedia Computer Science, 159: 2470-2480.

  77. Zanfrini, L. (2021). Europe and the refugee crisis: A challenge to our civilization. United Nations (Academic Impact). Available:

  78. Zoll, F. & Wortham, L. (2018). Judicial independence and accountability: Withstanding political stress in Poland. Fordham International Law Journal, 42(3): 875-948.


Heritage Foundation (2021). Country ranking-Poland. Available: (accessed September 1, 2022)

KPMG (2021). Investment in Poland. The rough guide to successful investing in Poland. Available: (accessed September 1, 2022).

Nordea (2021). Foreign direct investment (FDI) in Poland. Available: (accessed September 2, 2022).

Poland Consulting (2021). Business in Poland. Available: (accessed September 2, 2022).

Santander (2021). Poland: Foreign investment. Available: September 1, 2022).

Trading Economics (2021). Poland balance of trade. Available: (accessed September 2, 2022).
World Bank (2020). Doing Business 2019. Available: September 2, 2022).

bottom of page