top of page
Asian Institute of Research, Journal Publication, Journal Academics, Education Journal, Asian Institute
Asian Institute of Research, Journal Publication, Journal Academics, Education Journal, Asian Institute

Economics and Business

Quarterly Reviews

ISSN 2775-9237 (Online)

asian institute research, jeb, journal of economics and business, economics journal, accunting journal, business journal, managemet journal
asian institute research, jeb, journal of economics and business, economics journal, accunting journal, business journal, managemet journal
asian institute research, jeb, journal of economics and business, economics journal, accunting journal, business journal, managemet journal
asian institute research, jeb, journal of economics and business, economics journal, accunting journal, business journal, managemet journal
open access

Published: 20 June 2022

Corruption and Demography during the COVID-19 Pandemic in Indonesia

Prima Naomi, Iqbal Akbar, Faris Budiman Annas

Universitas Paramadina, Indonesia

asian institute research, jeb, journal of economics and business, economics journal, accunting journal, business journal, management journal

Download Full-Text Pdf



Pages: 201-213

Keywords: Corruption, Demography, COVID-19, Indonesia


COVID-19 pandemic dramatically changed the face of the world, including Indonesia. With more economic relief packages injected into public spending, corruption opportunities have risen, especially under the weakening corruption monitoring system. This article presents significant findings from the survey on the practice of corruption during the pandemic that can paint an understanding of corruption in Indonesia. Two survey rounds were conducted with respondents around Indonesia starting mid-to-end 2020, gathering 2,093 responses. The ordinary least-square (OLS) regression unveils that people who live in rural areas or spend less than the common people tend to commit or be involved in the practice of corruption. People who live in the rural areas or receive less income tend to perform corruption to close the income gap. It is also found that people with higher education levels tend to perform corruption. Higher corruption rents and broad opportunities for power abuse promote corruption in a well-educated society.


  1. Alfikalia, Soffia, A. I., & Hendrowati, R. (2019). Teori dan Analisis Kasus Korupsi (Theory and Analysis of Corruption Case). Jakarta: Universitas Paramadina.

  2. Andreski, S. (1968). The African Predicament. New York: Atherton Press.

  3. Banerjee, A., Mullainathan, S., & Hanna, R. (2012). Corruption. NBER Working Paper No. 17968.

  4. Barberis, N. (2018). Richard Thaler and the Rise of Behavioral Economics. Yale ICF Working Paper No. 2018-03.

  5. Becker, G. S., & Chiswick, B. R. (1966). Education and the Distribution of. The American Economic Review 56(1/2), pp. 358-369.

  6. Checchi, D., & van de Werfhorst, H. G. (2018). Policies, Skills and Earnings: How Educational Inequality Affects Earnings Inequality. Socio-Economic Review 16(1), pp. 137-160.

  7. Dridi, M. (2014). Corruption and Education: Empirical Evidence. International Journal of Economics and Financial Issues 4(3), pp. 476-493.

  8. Dwiputri, I. N., Arsyad, L., & Pradiptyo, R. (2018). The Corruption-Income Inequality Trap: A Study of Asian Countries. Economic Discussion Papers No. 2018-81.

  9. Dominik, H., Jara-Figueroa, C., Guavera, M., Simoes, A., & Hidalgo, C.A. (2017). The Structural Constraint of Income Inequality in Latin America. International & Trade Journal 40, pp. 70-85.

  10. Eicher, T., García-Peñalosa, C., & van Ypersele, T. (2009). Education, Corruption, and the Distribution of Income. Journal of Economic Growth 14, pp. 205-231.

  11. Farzanegan, M. R., & Witthuhn, S. (2014). Demographic Transition and Political Stability: Does Corruption Matter? CESIFO Working Paper No. 5133. Retrieved from

  12. Hamdani, R., Kumalahadi, & Urumsah, D. (2017). The Classification of Corruption in Indonesia: A Behavioral Perspective. SHS Web of Conferences, 34.

  13. Heckman, J. J., Humphries, J. E., & Veramendi, G. (2019). Returns to Education: The Causal Effects of Education on Earnings, Health, and Smoking. Journal of Political Economy 126(1), pp. 197-246.

  14. Hellmann, O. (2017). The Historical Origins of Corruption in the Developing World: A Comparative Analyst of East Asia. Crime Law Soc Change 68: pp. 145-165.

  15. Huntington, S. P. (1968). Political Order in Changing Societies. New Haven: Yale University Press.

  16. Ibrahim, R., Yusoff, M. A., & Koling, H. M. (2018). Patterns and Causes of Corruption Among Government Officials in Indonesia. Journal of Public Administration and Business 1(1), pp.74-91.

  17. Jakarta Post. (2020A, July). Police Probe 92 Cases of COVID-19 Social Aid Embezzlement. Jakarta Post. Retrieved from

  18. Jakarta Post. (2020B, December). Minister Juliari Named Suspect in COVID-19 Aid Graft Case. Jakarta Post. Retrieved from

  19. Kasakowskij et al. (2018). Anonymous and Non-anonymous User Behavior on Social Media: A Case Study of Jodel and Instagram. Journal of Information Science Theory and Practice, 6(3), 25-36.

  20. Nye, J. S. (1978). Corruption and Political Development. A Cost-Benefit Analysis in Heidenheimer, A. J. (ed.) pp. 564-578.

  21. Magyari, L.N. (2018). The Anthropology of Corruption. Current Anthropology 59(18), pp. 155-121.

  22. Ma, X., Wang, F., Chen, J., & Zhang, Y. (2018). The Income Gap Between Urban and Rural Residents in China: Since 1978. Comput Econ 52, pp. 1153-1174.

  23. Megbowon, E.T. (2018). Multidimensional Poverty Analysis of Urban and Rural Households in South Africa. Studia Universitatis Babes Bolyai - Oeconomica 63(1), pp. 3-19.

  24. Mietzner, M. (2020). Populist Anti-Scientism, Religious Polarisation, and Institutionalized Corruption: How Indonesia’s Democratic Decline Shaped Its COVID-19 Response. Journal of Current Southeast Asian Affairs 39(2), pp. 227-249.

  25. Monteverde, V. (2020). Great Corruption – Theory of Corrupt Phenomena. Journal of Financial Crime.

  26. Nguyen, T.T.H, Nguyen, T.T.H., Nguyen, T.L.H., & Nguyen, V.C. (2020). The Impact of International Integration of Income between Rural and Urban Areas in Vietnam. The Journal of Asian Finance 7(3), pp. 277-287.

  27. Niroumand, H., Zain, M. F., & Jamil, M. (2013). Statistical Methods for Comparison of Data Sets of Construction Methods and Building Evaluation. Procedia – Social and Behavioural Science 89, pp. 218-221.

  28. Prihanto, H., & Gunawan, I. D. (2020). Corruption in Indonesia (Is it Right to Governance, Leadership, and it to be Caused?). Journal of Economics and Sustainable Development 11(2), pp. 56-65.

  29. Punyaratabandhu, S. (2008). Corruption and Government Trust: A Survey of Urban and Rural Inhabitants in the North and Northeast of Thailand. Comparative Governance Reform in Asia: Democracy, Corruption, and Government Trust Research in Public Policy Analysis and Management 17, pp. 179-199.

  30. Setyaningrum, D., Wardhani, R., & Syakhroza, A. (2017). Good Public Governance, Corruption and Public Service Quality: Indonesia Evidence. International Journal of Applied Business and Economics Research 15(19), pp. 327-338.

  31. Shan, D. E., & Stifel, D. C. (2003). Urban – Rural Inequality in Living Standards in Africa. Journal of African Economies, 12(4), pp. 564-597.

  32. Sicular T., Ximing Y., Gustafsson B., & Li, S. (2008). The Urban-Rural Income Gap and Income Inequality in China. In Wan G. (Ed). Understanding Inequality and Poverty in China. Studies in Development Economics and Policy. Palgrave Macmillan: London.

  33. Simonović, B. (2018). Challenges in Controlling, Combating, and Preventing Corruption in Developing Countries. In P.C. Kratcoski and M. Edelbacher (Ed.). Fraud and Corruption: Major Types, Prevention, and Control. Cham, Switzerland: Springer.

  34. Steingrüber, S., Kirya, M., Jackson, D., & Mullard, S. (2020). Corruption in the Time of COVID-19: A Double-Threat for Low Incomes Countries. Norway: Chr. Michelsen Institute (CMI).

  35. Stata. 2015. Paired/ Unpaired t-test. Stata Manual. Retrieved from

  36. Senturia, J. J. (1931). Corruption, Political. Encyclopaedia of the Social Sciences IV, pp. 448-452.

  37. Sudibyo, Y.A., & Jianfu, S. (2015). Institutional Theory for Explaining Corruption: An Empirical Study on Public Sector Organizations in China and Indonesia. Corporate Ownership & Control 13(1), pp. 817-823.

  38. Sulemana, I., & Kpienbaareh, D. (2018). An Empirical Examination of the Relationship Between Income Inequality and Corruption in Africa. Economic Analysis and Policy 60, pp. 27-42.

  39. Tempo. (2020, December). Upeti Bansos Untuk Tim Banteng (Social Assistance Tributes for Bull Team). Tempo Magazine. Retrieved from

  40. Tempo. (2021, January). Paket Mewah Partai Merah (Expensive Package of Red Party). Tempo Magazine. Retrieved from

  41. Torsello, D., & Venard, B. (2016). The Anthropology of Corruption. Journal of Management Inquiry, 25(1), pp. 34-54.

  42. UU 31/1999. Pemberantasan Tindak Pidana Korupsi (Eradications of Corruption). Retrieved from

  43. Vrushi, J., & Kukutschka, R. M. B. (2021). Why Fighting Corruption Matters in Times of COVID-19. Retrieved from

  44. Wiborg, Ø. N., & Hansen, M. N. (2018). The Scandinavian Model During Increasing Inequality: Recent Trends in Educational Attainment, Earnings and Wealth Among Norwegian Siblings. Research in Social Stratification and Mobility 56, pp. 53-63.

  45. Worldometers. (2020). Indonesia Population (Live). Worldometer. Retrieved from

  46. Zimelis, A. (2020). Corruption Research: A Need for an Integrated Approach. International Area Studies Review, pp. 1-19.

bottom of page