top of page
Asian Institute of Research, Journal Publication, Journal Academics, Education Journal, Asian Institute
Asian Institute of Research, Journal Publication, Journal Academics, Education Journal, Asian Institute

Economics and Business

Quarterly Reviews

ISSN 2775-9237 (Online)

asian institute research, jeb, journal of economics and business, economics journal, accunting journal, business journal, managemet journal
asian institute research, jeb, journal of economics and business, economics journal, accunting journal, business journal, managemet journal
asian institute research, jeb, journal of economics and business, economics journal, accunting journal, business journal, managemet journal
asian institute research, jeb, journal of economics and business, economics journal, accunting journal, business journal, managemet journal
open access

Published: 03 June 2022

From Plato to e-Leaders: The Evolution of Leadership Theories and Styles

Murillo de Oliveira Dias, Juliana Pan, Patrícia Vieira, Leonardo José Dias Pereira

Fundação Getulio Vargas (Brazil), Université de Bordeaux (France)

asian institute research, jeb, journal of economics and business, economics journal, accunting journal, business journal, management journal

Download Full-Text Pdf



Pages: 133-146

Keywords: Leadership Theories, Leadership Styles


In this work, we addressed the epistemology of Leadership styles and supporting theories, providing a new perspective on the emerging themes after careful analysis and revision. From examining 37 leadership supporting theories, and 120 leadership styles, themes relating to the nature of Leadership emerged from the analysis, such as "cognitive" or "behavioral;" "situational" or "transformational;" "eye-to-eye" or "remote," and from the literature review, such as "informal or formal," "small groups" or "organizations," and leaders. As a result, we believe it is possible to reduce somehow the confusion that has contaminated leadership research for more than a century, paving the way for future research by understanding complex concepts affecting Leadership over the centuries.


  1. American Psychological Association (2010). Publication Manual. Washington, DC: American Psychological Association. 6th edition.

  2. Argyris, C. (1964). T-groups for organizational effectiveness. Harvard Business Review.

  3. Avolio, B. J., & Kahai, S. (2003). Adding the “e” to e-leadership: How it may impact your leadership. Organizational Dynamics, 31(4).

  4. Avolio, B. J., Kahai, S., & Dodge, G. E. (2000). E-leadership: Implications for theory, research, and practice. The Leadership Quarterly, 11(4).

  5. Avolio, B. J., Walumbwa, F. O., & Weber, T. J. (2009). Leadership: Current theories, research, and future directions. Annual Review of Psychology, 60(1), 421-449.

  6. Bales, R. F., Slater, P. E. (1955). Role differentiation in small decision-making groups. In T. Parsons, R. F. Bales (Eds.), Family, socialization and interaction process. New York: Free Press.

  7. Bartlett, F. C. (1926). The social psychology of leadership. Journal of the National Institute of Industrial Psychology, 3(4), 188-193.

  8. Bass, B. M. (1985). Leadership and performance beyond expectations. New York: Free Press.

  9. Bass, B. M. (1998a). The ethics of transformational leadership. In Ethics: The heart of leadership. J. B. Ciulla (ed.), 169-192. Westport, CT: Praeger.

  10. Bass, B. M. (1998b). Transformational leadership: Industrial, military, and educational impact. Mahwah, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates.

  11. Bass, B. M. (1999). Two decades of research and development in transformational leadership. European Journal of Work and Organizational Psychology, 8(1), 9-32.

  12. Bass, B. M, and Bass, R. (2008) The Bass Handbook of Leadership: Theory, Research, and Managerial Applications. Free Press, 4th Edition.

  13. Benne, K., & Sheats, P. (1948). Functional roles of group members.

  14. Blake, R.R. & Mouton, J.S. (1964). The Managerial Grid. Houston, TX: Gulf Publishing.

  15. Bono, J. E., & Judge, T. A. (2003). Self-concordance at work: Toward understanding the motivational effects of transformational leaders. Academy of Management Journal, 46(5): 554-571.

  16. Bogardus, E. S. (1918). Studies in Sociology (No. 9-12). University of Southern California Press.

  17. Burns, A. T. (1934). Note with attachment: Allen T. Burns to Ida M. Tarbell, July 20, 1934.

  18. Burns, J. M. (1978) Leadership. New York: Harper & Row.

  19. Calder, B. J. (1977). Focus groups and the nature of qualitative marketing research. Journal of Marketing research, 14(3), 353-364.

  20. Cattell, R. B., & Stice, G. F. (1954). Four formulae for selecting leaders on the basis of personality. Human Relations, 7(4), 493-507.

  21. Carlyle, T. (1993) [1840]. On heroes, hero-worship, and the heroic in history. In On Heroes, Hero-Worship, and the Heroic in History. University of California Press.

  22. Chapin, F. S. (1924). Socialized leadership. J. Soc. F., 3, 57.

  23. Conway, W. M. (1915). The crowd in peace and war. Longmans, Green.

  24. Cowley, W. H. (1928). Three distinctions in the study of leaders. The Journal of Abnormal and Social Psychology, 23(2), 144.

  25. Cowley, W. H. (1931). The traits of face-to-face leaders. The Journal of Abnormal and Social Psychology, 26(3), 304.

  26. Clark, G. K. (1951). The Repeal of the Corn Laws and the Politics of the Forties. The Economic History Review, 4(1), 1-13.

  27. Cunha, N.C., Dias, M. (2021) Contract Negotiation: When the Detail Saved the Day.GSJ 9(12), 130-141; doi: 10.11216/gsj.2021.12.56418

  28. Dansereau Jr, F., Graen, G., & Haga, W. J. (1975). A vertical dyad linkage approach to leadership within formal organizations: A longitudinal investigation of the role making process. Organizational behavior and human performance, 13(1), 46-78.

  29. DasGupta, P. (2011) Literature Review: e-Leadership. Emerging Leadership Journeys, 4(1), 1- 36.

  30. Dias, M. (2020). When You Don’t See the Other Party: Business Asynchronous Negotiations on Intangible Assets. In Fedorov, S. (Ed.), Research Trends in Multidisciplinary Research and Development (Volume 6, pp.13-26). Weser Books.

  31. Dias, M. (2020b) The Four-Type Negotiation Matrix: A Model for Assessing Negotiation Processes. British Journal of Education, 8(5), 40-57. doi: 10.6084/m9.figshare.12389627

  32. Dias, M, Leitão, R., Batista, R., Medeiros, D. (2022) Writing the Deal: Statistical Analysis of Brazilian Business Negotiations on Intangible Assets. European Journal of Business and Management Research, 7(1), 61-65; doi: 10.24018/ejbmr.2022.7.1.1233

  33. Dias, M., Lopes, R., Teles, A. (2020) Will Virtual Replace Classroom Teaching? Lessons from Virtual Classes via Zoom in the Times of COVID-19. Journal of Advances in Education and Philosophy, 4(5), 208-213. doi: 10.36348/jaep.2020.v04i05.004

  34. Dias, M., Lopes, R. (2020) Will the COVID-19 Pandemic Reshape our Society? EAS Journal of Humanities and Cultural Studies (EAS J Humanit Cult Stud). 2(2), 93-97. doi: 10.36349/EASJHCS.2020.V02I02.013

  35. Silva. G.B., Dias, M. (2022) How do The Governments Promote Internationalization of Companies? A Multiple Case Study. Social Sciences and Humanities Research, 5(4), 1-10;doi: 10.13140/RG.2.2.24005.93922

  36. Dias, M.; Pereira, L; Vieira, P.(2022) Are the Russian Banks Threatened with Removal from SWIFT? A Multiple CaseStudy on Interbank Financial Messaging Systems. IJSRM, 10(3), 3137-44; doi: 10.18535/ijsrm/v10i3.em1

  37. Silva. G.B., Melo, R.C, Dias, M. (2022) Corporate Entrepreneurship in a Brazilian Public Institution: A Multiple Case Study. IJDR,12(2), 53955-61; doi: 10.37118/ijdr.23979.02.2022

  38. Dienesch, R.M., and Liden, R.C. (1986) Leader-Member Exchange Model of Leadership: A Critique and Further Development. Academy of Management Review, 11, 618-634.

  39. Fiedler, F. E. (1964). A contingency model of leadership effectiveness. Advances in Experimental Social Psychology, 1(l) 149-190).

  40. Galton, F. (1869). Genius Hereditary: An Inquiry into its Laws and Consequences. London: MacMillan and Co.

  41. Getzels, J. W., & Guba, E. G. (1957). Social behavior and the administrative process. The school review, 65(4), 423-441.

  42. Giddens, A. (1984). The constitution of society: Outline of the theory of structuration. Cambridge: Polity Press.

  43. Goleman, D. (1995). Emotional Intelligence: Why It Can Matter more than IQ for Character, Health, and Lifelong Achievement. New York, Bantam Books.

  44. Goleman, D. (1998a). "What makes a leader?" Harvard Business Review 76(6): 92-102.

  45. Goleman, D. (1998b). Working with Emotional Intelligence. New York, Bantam Books.

  46. Goleman, D. (2000). "Leadership that gets results." Harvard Business Review March-April: 79-90.

  47. Goleman, D., Boyatzis, R. and McKee, A. (2002). Primal Leadership: Realizing the Power of Emotional Intelligence. Boston, MA: Harvard Business School Press.

  48. Hallinger, P., & Murphy, J. (1985). Assessing the instructional management behavior of principals. The elementary school journal, 86(2), 217-247.

  49. Hallinger, P. (1992). The evolving role of American principals: From managerial to instructional to transformational leaders. Journal of Educational Administration.

  50. Harding, L. W. (1949). Twenty-one varieties of educational leadership. Educational Leadership, 6(5), 299-302.

  51. Hayes, S. C. (1995). Knowing selves. The Behavior Therapist, 18, 94-96.

  52. Hersey, P. and Blanchard, K. H. (1969). Management of Organizational Behavior – Utilizing Human Resources. New Jersey/Prentice Hall.

  53. Hersey, P. and Blanchard, K. H. (1977). Management of Organizational Behavior 3rd Edition– Utilizing Human Resources. New Jersey/Prentice Hall.

  54. Hodgkinson, C. (1978). The failure of organizational and administrative theory. McGill Journal of Education/Revue des sciences de l'éducation de McGill, 13(003).

  55. Hollander, E. P. (1958). Conformity, status, and idiosyncrasy credit. Psychological Review, 65(2), 117.

  56. Homans, G. C. (1950). The human group. NY: Harcourt Brace.

  57. Homans, G. C. (1958). Social behavior as exchange. American Journal of Sociology, 63, 597- 606.

  58. Homans, G. C. (1984). Coming to my senses. New Brunswick, NJ: Transaction Books.

  59. Homans. G.C. (1961). Social behavior. NY: Harcourt Brace.

  60. House, Robert J.; Mitchell, T.R. (1974). "Path-goal theory of leadership.” Journal of Contemporary Business. 3: l–97.

  61. House, R. J. (1977). A theory of charismatic leadership. Leadership: The cutting edge.

  62. Jacobs, T. O. (1970). Leadership and exchange in formal organizations. Human Resources Research Organization Alexandria VA.

  63. Jennings, I. (1960). Party politics. CUP Archive.

  64. Kerr, S., & Jermier, J. M. (1978). Substitutes for leadership: Their meaning and measurement. Organizational behavior and human performance, 22(3), 375-403.

  65. Klein, K. J., & House, R. J. (1995). On fire: charismatic leadership and levels of analysis. The Leadership Quarterly, 6(2), 183-198.

  66. Levine, S. (1949). An approach to constructive leadership. Journal of Social Issues.

  67. Lieberman, M. A., Yalom, I. D. & Miles, M. E. (1973) Encounter groups: First facts. New York: Basic Books.

  68. Lippitt, M. (1999). How to influence leaders. Training & Development, 53(3), 18-23.

  69. Machiavelli, N. (1993). The prince (1513). Hertfordshire: Wordsworth Editions.

  70. Maccoby, H. (1979). Sex According to the Song of Songs. Commentary, 67(6), 53.

  71. Morrow, I. J., & Stern, M. (1988). Profiling Superior, Average, and Poor Performers in a Management Assessment Program. Center for Applied Research, Lubin Schools of Business, Pace University.

  72. Murphy, A. J. (1941). A study of the leadership process. American Sociological Review, 674-687.

  73. Newell, A., & Simon, H. A. (1972). Human problem solving (Vol. 104, No. 9). Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice-hall.

  74. Oliverson, L. R. (1976) Identification of dimensions of leadership and leader behavior and cohesion in encounter groups (Doctoral dissertation, University of Kansas, 1975).Dissertation Abstracts International, 37, (1-A), 136–137. (University Microfilms No. 76-16, 760)

  75. Osborn, R. N., & Hunt, J. G. (1975). Relations between leadership, size, and subordinate satisfaction in a voluntary organization. Journal of Applied Psychology, 60(6), 730.

  76. Pfeffer, J. (1977). Power and resource allocation in organizations. New directions in organizational behavior, 235, 265.

  77. Pielstick, C. D. (2000). Formal vs. informal leading: A comparative analysis. Journal of Leadership Studies, 7(3), 99-114.

  78. Pigors, P. A. U. L. (1936). Types of leaders in group work. Sociology & Social Research.

  79. Plutarch (2019) How to Be a Leader: An Ancient Guide to Wise Leadership. Princeton University Press.

  80. Redl, F. (1948). Resistance in therapy groups. Human Relations, 1(3), 307-313.

  81. Sims, H. P. (1977). The leader as a manager of reinforcement contingencies: An empirical example and a model. Leadership: The cutting edge, 1211977, 137.

  82. Smith, H. L., & Krueger, L. M. (1933). A brief summary of the literature on leadership(Vol. 9). Bureau of cooperative research, Indiana University.

  83. Spaulding, F. T. (1934). The Small Six-Year Secondary School. Junior-Senior High School Clearing House, 8(8), 469-474.

  84. Spector, P., & Suttell, B. J. (1957). An experimental comparison of the effectiveness of three patterns of leadership behavior. American Institutes for Research Washington Dc.

  85. Stogdill, R. M. (1948). Personal factors associated with leadership: A survey of the literature. The Journal of Psychology, 25(1), 35-71.

  86. Stogdill, R. M., & Shartle, C. L. (1948). Methods for determining patterns of leadership behavior in relation to organization structure and objectives. Journal of Applied Psychology, 32(3), 286.

  87. Vasilescu, M. (2019). Leadership styles and theories in effective management activity. Annals-Economy Series, 4, 47-52.

  88. Venkatesh, Viswanath; Morris, Michael G.; Davis, Gordon B.; Davis, Fred D. (2003). User Acceptance of Information Technology: Toward a Unified View. MIS Quarterly, 27 (3), 425–478.

  89. Vroom, Victor H.; Yetton, Phillip W. (1973). Leadership and Decision-Making. Pittsburgh: University of Pittsburgh

  90. Weber, M. (1947). The Theory of Social and Economic Organization. Transl, by T. Parsons and AM Henderson.

  91. Wolman, A. (1971). No quick and easy solutions. Environmental Science & Technology, 5(10), 981-981.

  92. Yukl, G. (1971). Toward a behavioral theory of leadership. Organizational behavior and human performance, 6(4), 414-440.

  93. Zaccaro, S. J. (2007). Trait-based perspectives of leadership. American psychologist, 62(1), 6.

  94. Zaccaro, S. J., & Bader, P. (2003). E-leadership and the challenges of leading e-teams: Minimizing the bad and maximizing the good. Organizational Dynamics, 31(4).

  95. Zaccaro, S. J., Kemp, C., & Bader, P. (2004). The nature of leadership. London: Sage.

bottom of page