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Asian Institute of Research, Journal Publication, Journal Academics, Education Journal, Asian Institute
Asian Institute of Research, Journal Publication, Journal Academics, Education Journal, Asian Institute

Journal of Health and Medical Sciences

ISSN 2622-7258

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open access

Published: 15 April 2024

A Comparison of Healthcare Funding Systems between Low- /Medium-Income and High-Income Countries: Equity, Equality, and Fairness in the Rationing of Healthcare Resources

Henry Omoregie Egharevba

National Institute for Pharmaceutical Research and Development, Abuja

journal of social and political sciences
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Pages: 23-31

Keywords: Health Funding Systems, Healthcare, Inequities, Inequalities, Rationing, Cost-Effectiveness Analysis, Malaria, Cardiovascular Disease, Nigeria, United States


Access to healthcare is a social right and its demand is universal. However, health resources are limited and have to be rationed justifiably which borders on societal values and the efficiency of the healthcare system. A more efficient health system will promote more equitable access to health care based on the principle of universal health coverage (UHC) advocated by the World Health Organisation. The efficiency of any health system depends on the structure of its funding or financing system. Evidence has shown that there is a strong correlation between country’s income and total health expenditure. This also affects the health financing systems of countries. This discourse exposes the challenge of health inequities/inequalities and its correlation with health funding systems in low-income countries and upper-middle/high-income countries using Nigeria and the United States as reference countries. It also attempts to discuss the feasibility of attaining more equitable access to healthcare in a manner that promotes health equity and equality through economic evaluations of interventions in diseases of high socioeconomic burden and major health outcome concerns.


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