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Asian Institute of Research, Journal Publication, Journal Academics, Education Journal, Asian Institute
Asian Institute of Research, Journal Publication, Journal Academics, Education Journal, Asian Institute

Journal of Health and Medical Sciences

ISSN 2622-7258

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open access

Published: 23 February 2021

Catastrophic Health Expenditure, Distress Financing and Impoverishment due to Out-of-Pocket Expenses for Healthcare among Patients with Chronic Liver Disease: A Cross-sectional Study among Hospitalized Patients in Bangladesh

Mohammad Farhadul Haque, ANM Shamsul Islam, Samina Pervin, Emily Akter, Md Mahmudul Hasan

National Institute of Preventive and Social Medicine (Bangladesh), Enam Medical College and Hospital (Bangladesh), Amar Hospital Ltd (Bangladesh)

journal of social and political sciences
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Pages: 29-38

Keywords: Catastrophic Health Expenditure, Distress Financing, Impoverishment, Out-of-pocket Expenses, Liver disease


Out-of-pocket (OOP) expenses for hospitalized patients with chronic liver disease (CLD) poses an economic challenge on affected household in the form of catastrophic health expenditure (CHE), distress financing and impoverishment. OOP Expenses data for hospitalized CLD patients from Bangladesh is scarce. This study aimed to estimate the OOP expenses and resulting CHE, distress financing and impoverishment among hospitalized patients with CLD. This cross-sectional study was conducted among conveniently selected 107 diagnosed CLD patients admitted at Bangabandhu Sheikh Mujib Medical University (BSMMU) and Dhaka Medical College Hospital (DMCH) aged 18 years and above. Data were collected from the respondents using a semi-structured questionnaire through face to face interview during discharge from hospital. Out of pocket expenditure for chronic liver disease in selected hospitals was Bangladeshi Taka (BDT) 19,262. Direct medical, direct non-medical and indirect cost was BDT 16,240; 2,165 and 1,510, respectively. Investigation cost and medicine cost contributed to 48.48% and 31.81% of the total OOP expenses, respectively. At 10% threshold level, 29% of the respondents were affected by CHE. 64.5% of the respondents were facing distress financing due to OOP expenses. Among the respondents, 1.9% slipped below the international poverty line of $1.90 (BDT 161.10, in 2019).There was statistically significant (p < 0.05) difference among the mean OOP expenses for different etiological types of chronic liver disease. The study concluded that it requires establishing a more accessible and affordable decentralized health care system for CLD treatment along with the implementation of financial risk protection.


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