top of page
Asian Institute of Research, Journal Publication, Journal Academics, Education Journal, Asian Institute
Asian Institute of Research, Journal Publication, Journal Academics, Education Journal, Asian Institute

Law and Humanities
Quarterly Reviews

ISSN 2827-9735

Judge Gavel
 Scales of Justice
City Crowds
People in Library
open access

Published: 29 June 2022

The Role of Ombudsman in the Protection of Human Rights in the Kingdom of Bahrain

Arbab Mohammed Abdul Rub

University of Bahrain, Kingdom of Bahrain

asia institute of research, journal of education, education journal, education quarterly reviews, education publication, education call for papers
pdf download

Download Full-Text Pdf



Pages: 1-13

Keywords: Concept of Ombudsman, Evolution of the Institution of Ombudsman, Extension of the Jurisdiction of Ombudsman Introduced in Various Sectors, Paris Principles on the Formation of Human Rights Institutions, Role of Ombudsman in the Protection of Human Rights in Bahrain


The evolution of the institution of Ombudsman in retrospect shows that changes in the western system of administration from time to time and the recognition of various new kinds of rights and interests by the States at the national and international levels called for the introduction of Ombudsman as an addendum to the system of administration of justice. Because of fundamental changes in the system of government Ombudsman came to perform distinct functions at different times such as investigation, mediation, dispute resolution etc. And this was done in relation to various sectors of society such as business, education, health, transport, and commercial undertakings. In major legal systems it has come to play a significant role in human rights. The Kingdom of Bahrain also has established in its administrative system the machinery of Ombudsman for the protection of the Human Rights of the individuals.


Ala'a Shehabi; Marc Owen Jones (2015) Bahrain's uprising: Resistance and Repression in the Gulf, Zed Books Ltd., London, UK.
Cane, Peter (2004), ‘Making Decisions and Rules’ Administrative Law (4th Edition) Oxford University Press, p. 192.
C. K. Takwani (2016) Lectures on Administrative Law, Eastern Book Company, Lucknow, India.
De Smith’s Judicial Review, (2007), (6th ed.,), London, Sweet & Maxwell
Decree Law No. (16) for the year 2002 concerning the Financial and Administrative Audit Office (National Audit Office) of Bahrain
Decree Law No. (49) of Bahrain for the year (2010)
E.C.S. Wade and A. W. Bradley,(2006), Prentice Hall.
Griffith and Street, (1963)‘Principles of Administrative Law.’ Publisher: Sir, Isaac Pitman & Sons.
Human Rights Watch (2012), Report on appointment of Turkish Ombudsman. 8.
India, Bahrain, and Qatar (1999): Political, Economic, and Strategic Dimensions Aftab Kamal Pasha, Gyan Sagar Publications, New Delhi,
Kenneth Culp Davis, (1978) Administrative Law Treatise, K. C Davis Pub. Co.
Kenneth Culp Davis, (1971), Discretionary Justice, “A Preliminary Inquiry, Champaign, University of Illinois. 11.
Leyland, Peter, Anthony, Gordon (2009) ‘Administrative Law’, 6th Edn. Oxford University Press.
M.P. Jain and S. N. Jain, (1986) ‘Principles of Administrative Law’ 4th edition, N. M. Tripathi Ltd., Bombay.
National Human Rights Principles, Role sand Responsibilities, (2010)
Peter Cane, (2004), Making Decisions and Rules, Administrative Law, 4th ed., Oxford University Press.
Peter Leyland, (2008), Gordon Anthony, ‘Illegality”, Administrative Law (6th Edn., Oxford University Press,
Pickle, V. (1987) Islamic Roots of Ombudsman Systems, ‘The Ombudsman Journal. pp. 101-107
Sir Ivor Jennings, (1933),“The Law and the Constitution”, University of London Press.,+(1933),%E2%80%9CThe+Law+and+the+Constitution%E2%80%9D,+University+of+London+Press.&source=bl&ots=FReLUVsf5H&sig=ACfU3U32dl2MUi22RVxBCt-qscVIVc4ErQ&hl=en&sa=X&ved=2ahUKEwjP1Ja1_M34AhXOvKQKHYeiBzIQ6AF6BAguEAM#v=onepage&q=Sir%20Ivor%20Jennings%2C%20(1933)%2C%E2%80%9CThe%20Law%20and%20the%20Constitution%E2%80%9D%2C%20University%20of%20London%20Press.&f=false
Text of the Paris Principles adopted by the United Nations, (1993)
UN Handbook on National Human Rights Institutions. 1995, United Nations, New York, Geneva.
William Wade, Christopher Forsyth (2009) ‘Retention of Discretion’ Administrative Law, 10th Edn. Oxford University Press.
Window-dressing or Pioneers of Change? (2016) An Assessment of Bahrain's Human Rights Oversight Bodies Contribute tor Amnesty International Publisher.

bottom of page