top of page
Asian Institute of Research, Journal Publication, Journal Academics, Education Journal, Asian Institute
Asian Institute of Research, Journal Publication, Journal Academics, Education Journal, Asian Institute

Education Quarterly Reviews

ISSN 2621-5799

asia institute of research, journal of education, education journal, education quarterly reviews, education publication, education call for papers
asia institute of research, journal of education, education journal, education quarterly reviews, education publication, education call for papers
asia institute of research, journal of education, education journal, education quarterly reviews, education publication, education call for papers
asia institute of research, journal of education, education journal, education quarterly reviews, education publication, education call for papers
open access

Published: 30 November 2022

Entrepreneurship in Preschool Education: Turkish Preservice Teachers’ Entrepreneurship Features, Comparison with their Lecturers’ Views and Suggestions for Development

Sila Kaya-Capocci

Agri Ibrahim Cecen University, Turkey

asia institute of research, journal of education, education journal, education quarterly reviews, education publication, education call for papers
pdf download

Download Full-Text Pdf



Pages: 310-325

Keywords: Enterprise Education, Entrepreneurship Feature, Preschool, Preservice Teacher Education, Professional Development


Learning skills and developing competencies at early ages augment its benefits later in life, and therefore, can be effective in the long run. Starting from this point, the paper argues the need for and importance of enterprise education in preschool education. The paper aims to explore preservice preschool teachers’ entrepreneurship features and make suggestions for implementing enterprise education in teacher education programmes. “The Entrepreneurship for Teacher Candidates Scale” was employed with 184 preservice preschool teachers, followed by interviews with four of their lecturers. Descriptive statistics and two-way ANOVA was used to analyse the quantitative data, and thematic analysis was used for the qualitative data. Overall, the results showed that preservice preschool teachers’ perception of their level of entrepreneurship features was high, which was not agreed by lecturers except for self-confidence. The results of two-way ANOVA did not indicate any significant difference (p>.05) for any of the factors investigated (i.e., gender, year of study, taking entrepreneurship courses previously, and/or having an entrepreneur in the family). This means that participants had similar scores and have similar levels of entrepreneurship features. Having no impact of the year of study and entrepreneurship courses attended previously on participants’ entrepreneurial features may suggest the revision of preschool teacher education programmes and the content development targeting such features. Finally, practice-based, active, and collaborative teaching is suggested rather than theory-based teaching for enterprise education in preschool teacher education programmes. Teacher-academics meetings, seminars and workshops about enterprise education are suggested for professional development of preschool teachers.


  1. Atkinson, R. D., & Mayo, M. J. (2010). Refueling the US innovation economy: Fresh approaches to science, technology, engineering and mathematics (STEM) education. Washington, DC: The Information Technology & Innovation Foundation, Forthcoming.

  2. Axelsson, K., Hagglund, S., & Sandberg, A. (2015). Entrepreneurial learning in education: Preschool as a take-off for the entrepreneurial self. Journal of education and training, 2(2), 40-58.

  3. Barbera-Tomas, D., Castello, I., De Bakker, F. G., & Zietsma, C. (2019). Energizing through visuals: How social entrepreneurs use emotion-symbolic work for social change. Academy of Management Journal, 62(6), 1789-1817.

  4. Berglund, K., Johannisson, B., & Schwartz, B. (2012). Societal entrepreneurship: positioning, penetrating, promoting.Cheltenham: Edward Elgar Publishing.

  5. Blundel, R., Lockett, N., & Wang, C. (2017) Exploring entrepreneurship. Sage.

  6. Bryman, A. (2012). Social research methods, New York: Oxford University Press.

  7. Cohen, L., Manion, L. & Morrison, K. (2011). Research methods in education, New York, NY: Routledge.

  8. DES (Department of Education & Skills) (2015). National Skills Strategy 2025. Available at:

  9. Deveci, I. & Cepni, S. (2015). Development of Entrepreneurship Scale Towards Student Teachers: A validity and reliability study. International Journal of Human Sciences, 12(2), 92-112. doi: 10.14687/ijhs.v12i2.3240.

  10. Deveci, I. & Seikkula-Leino, J. (2018). A review of entrepreneurship education in teacher education. Malaysian Journal of Learning and Instruction, 15 (1), 105-148.

  11. Eltanahy M, Forawi S, & Mansour N (2020). Incorporating entrepreneurial practices into STEM Education: Development of interdisciplinary E-STEM model in high school in the United Arab Emirates. Thinking Skills and Creativity, 37, 1-9. doi: 10.1016/j.tsc.2020.100697.

  12. European Commission (2015). Entrepreneurship Education. A road to success. Luxembourg: European Union.

  13. Garcia-Rodriguez, F. J., Gutierrez-Tano, D., & Ruiz-Rosa, I. (2018). Analysis of the Potential of Entrepreneurship Education in Young Children. Entrepreneurship Research Journal, 9(1).

  14. Goodwyn KJ (2017) Underrepresented entrepreneurship: A mixed method study evaluating postsecondary persistence approaches for minorities in science technology engineering math (STEM) to graduate studies and STEM entrepreneurship education(Doctoral Thesis). Cardinal Stritch University. Wisconsin.

  15. Hoz Rosales, B. D. L., Camacho Ballesta, J. A., & Tamayo Torres, I. (2019) Effects of innovative entrepreneurship and the information society on social progress: an international analysis. Entrepreneurship and Sustainability Issues, 7(2), 782-813.

  16. Huber, L. R., Sloof, R., & Van Praag, M. (2014). The effect of early entrepreneurship education: Evidence from a field experiment. European Economic Review, 72, 76-97.

  17. Insulander, E., Ehrlin, A. & Sandberg, A. (2015). Entrepreneurial learning in Swedish preschools: possibilities for and constraints on children's active participation. Early Child Development and Care, 185(10), 1545-1555, DOI: 10.1080/03004430.2015.1007967.

  18. Johnson, R.B. & Onwuegbuzie, A.J. (2004). Mixed Methods Research: A Research Paradigm Whose Time has Come. Educational Researcher, 33(7), 4-26.

  19. Kaya, S., Erduran, S., Birdthistle, N. & McCormack, O. (2018). Looking at the social aspects of nature of science in science education through a new lens: The role of economics and entrepreneurship. Science & Education, 27(5-6), 457-478.

  20. Kaya-Capocci, S. (2022). Düşünceden İcraate: Girişimci Stem Eğitimi Ve Eğitim Sisteminde Uygulama Evreleri [From Conception to Action: Entrepreneurial STEM Education and the Phases of Integration]. (Eds. M. Akarsu, N. Okur-Akcay, & R. Elmas). In STEM Eğitimi Yaklaşımı [STEM Education Approach]. Ankara: Pegem Akademi.

  21. Kaya-Capocci, S., McCormack, O., Erduran, S., & Birdthistle, N. (2021). Exploring the impact of positing entrepreneurship in nature of science: initial science teachers' perspectives. Education+ Training, 64(7), 996-1017.

  22. Kondracka-Szala, M & Malinowska, J. (2019). Entrepreneurship Education as a Challenge in the Education of Teachers of Pre-school and Early School Children – at the Intersection of Academic Theory and Practice. The New Educational Review, 58(4). Doi: 10.15804/tner.2019.58.4.12.

  23. Korhonen, M., Komulainen, K., & Raty, H. (2012). Not everyone is cut out to be the entrepreneur type: How Finnish school teachers construct the meaning of entrepreneurship education and the related abilities of the pupils. Scandinavian Journal of Educational Research, 56(1), 1-19. Kristová & Malach, 2017)

  24. Leffler, E. (2014). Enterprise Learning and School Subjects – A Subject Didactic Issue? Journal of Education and Training, 1(2), 15-30.

  25. Lindquist, M., Sol, J. & van Praag, M. (2012). Why do Entrepreneurial Parents have Entrepreneurial Children. Amsterdam and Rotterdam: Tinbergen Institute.

  26. Lindstrom, L. (2013). What Do Children Learn at Swedish Preschools? International Education Studies, 6(4), 236-250.

  27. O’Connell, M., Fox, S., Hinz, B., & Cole, H. (2016). Quality early education for all: Fostering creative, entrepreneurial, resilient and capable learners. Mitchell Institute policy paper No. 01/2016. Mitchell Institute, Melbourne. Available from:

  28. OECD/CERI (1989): Towards an “enterprising” culture: A challenge for education and training. OECD/CERI Educational Monograph No. 4. Paris: OECD.

  29. Onel, A. (2018). Girisimci ogrenciler ve ogretmenlerle girisimci Turkiye'ye [Entrepreneurial Turkey with entrepreneurial students and teachers]. Amasya Education Journal, 7(2), 256-286.

  30. Ozdamar, K. (2011). Paket Programlar İle İstatistiksel Veri Analizi 1 [Statistical Data Anaysis with Package Programmes 1], Eskişehir: Kaan Kitapevi.

  31. Pepin, M. & St-Jean, E. (2019). Assessing the impacts of school entrepreneurial initiatives A quasi-experiment at the elementary school level. Journal of Small Business and Enterprise Development, 26 (2), pp. 273-288.

  32. Priscilla Oguejiofor, N. (2017). Life Long, Entrepreneurial Learning: The Need In Early Childhood Education. Journal of Qualitative Education, 13(1).

  33. Putri, F. R., & Djoehaeni, H. (2018). The Application of The Entrepreneur Program in Early Age Character Development. In Proceedings of the 1st International Conference on Educational Sciences (ICES 2017) - Volume 1, 333-338.

  34. Sarıkaya, M., & Coskun, E. (2015). A new approach in preschool education: Social entrepreneurship education. Procedia-Social and Behavioral Sciences, 195, 888-894.

  35. Seikkula‐Leino, J. (2011). The implementation of entrepreneurship education through curriculum reform in Finnish comprehensive schools. Journal of Curriculum Studies, 43(1), 69-85.

  36. Shahin, M., Ilic, O., Gonsalvez, C., & Whittle, J. (2021). The impact of a STEM-based entrepreneurship program on the entrepreneurial intention of secondary school female students. International Entrepreneurship and Management Journal, 1-32. doi: 10.1007/s113650 20-00713-7.

  37. Stamatovic, J. & Zlatic, L. (2021). Entrepreneurship And The Education Of Future Teachers. Journal Of Elementary Education, 14(1), 13–30.

  38. Suzanti, L. and Maesaroh, S. (2017). Entrepreneurship Learning for Early Childhood - A Case Study of Children Age 4 – 5 in TK Khalifah Ciracas Serang. In Proceedings of the 2nd International Conference on Economic Education and Entrepreneurship (ICEEE 2017), 403-410.

  39. The Ministry of Education (2022). Güncel Eğitim Politikalari Ve 20. Millî Eğitim Şûrasi Tavsiye Kararlari. Ankara: Ministry of Education.

  40. Tican, C. (2019). Pre-Service Primary School and Pre-School Teachers’ Perception of Individual Entrepreneurship and Opinions about Their Creative Thinking Tendency. International Journal of Educational Methodology, 5(4), 591-606.

  41. Self-assessment of Croatian elementary school pupils on the entrepreneurial initiative, Management: Journal of Contemporary Management Issues, 18 (2), 57-79.

  42. Yan, B. (2018). Practice and Exploration of Innovation and Entrepreneurship Education in Preschool Education Based on the New Normal. In Proceedings of 8th International Conference on Education, Management, Computer and Society (EMCS 2018).

  43. Yavuz Konokman, G., & Yanpar Yelken, T. (2014). Investigation of preschool teacher candidates’ attitudes towards learning and their entrepreneurship levels. International Online Journal of Educational Sciences, 6(3), 648-665.

  44. Yilmaz, E. & Sunbul, A. M. (2009). Üniversite öğrencilerine yönelik girişimcilik ölçeğinin geliştirilmesi [Developing an Entrepreneurship Scale for University Students]. Selcuk University Social Sciences Journal, 21, 196-203.

  45. Yin, Y., Yang, L., & Liu, B. (2020). Analysis on entrepreneurship psychology of preschool education students with entrepreneurial intention. Frontiers in psychology, 11, 1559.

bottom of page