top of page
Asian Institute of Research, Journal Publication, Journal Academics, Education Journal, Asian Institute
Asian Institute of Research, Journal Publication, Journal Academics, Education Journal, Asian Institute

Education Quarterly Reviews

ISSN 2621-5799

asia institute of research, journal of education, education journal, education quarterly reviews, education publication, education call for papers
asia institute of research, journal of education, education journal, education quarterly reviews, education publication, education call for papers
asia institute of research, journal of education, education journal, education quarterly reviews, education publication, education call for papers
asia institute of research, journal of education, education journal, education quarterly reviews, education publication, education call for papers
open access

Published: 24 May 2021

Future Time Perception and Examination of Depression Terms of Hope

Fatma Çetin, Mehmet Kaya

Sakarya University, Turkey

asia institute of research, journal of education, education journal, education quarterly reviews, education publication, education call for papers
pdf download

Download Full-Text Pdf



Pages: 371-383

Keywords: Future Time Perception, Trait Hope, Depression, University Students and Goal


The aim of this study is to examine the depression levels of university students according to their perception of future time and hope. The research is a relational screening study and it was conducted with the participation of 1st and 4th year undergraduate students studying in various departments of different universities (n = 368). The data of the study were collected using the Future Time Perception Scale (FTPS), the Trait Hope Scale (THS) and the Beck Depression Inventory (BDI). In the analysis of the data according to the research questions; independent sample t test, correlation analysis and multiple regression analysis were used. The data of the research were analyzed with the SPSS 24.0 package program. As a result of the research, weakly significant relationships were found between future time perception scores and hope scores, while moderate and high negative significant relationships were found between hope and depression scores. According to another result of the study, when the perceptions of future time and hope levels of 1st and 4th grade students were examined to predict depression, it was concluded that while future time perception was not a predictor of depression, hope scores predicted depression. According to the results of the research, when the future time perception, hope and depression levels were compared, it was found that the future time perception and commitment scores of the 1st grade students were higher than the 4th grade students.


  1. Akman, Y. & Korkut, F. (1993). A research on the Hope Scale. Hacettepe University Journal of Education, 9 (9). Access address:

  2. Arnau, R. C., Rosen, D. H., Finch, J. F., Rhudy, J. L. & Fortunato, V. J. (2007). Longitudinal effects of hope on depression and anxiety: a latent variable analysis. Journal of personality, 75(1), 43-64. doi: 10.1111/j.1467-6494.2006.00432.x.

  3. Avcı, S. (2008). The pattern of explanatory and predictive relationships between prospective teachers' perceptions of the future, their willingness to postpone their academic desires, their perceived instrumentality, socio-economic levels and academic achievements.(Doctoral Thesis). Accessed from the database of the HEI Thesis Center (Thesis No: 230913).

  4. Avcı, S. & Erden, M. (2009). Validity and reliability study of the Turkish form of the Future Time Perception Scale. Çukurova University Journal of Education Faculty,3(37), 1-12. Access address:

  5. Avcı, S. & Erden, M. (2013). The effect of future time perception and delaying desires in the academic field on prospective teachers' academic success. Kırşehir Ahi Evran University Journal of Education Faculty (KEFAD). 14(1), 389-406. Access address:

  6. Bahadırlı, N. B., Tutuğ, C., Ceviz, H. & Çalıyurt, O. (2013). Time perception and psychiatric disorders. Current Approaches in Psychiatry, 5(3),355-377 doi:10.5455/cap.20130524

  7. Baloğlu, M. (2015). Use of multivariate statistics, Ankara: Nobel Publications.

  8. Bayav, O. (2018). The effect of university students' anxiety levels on future time perception. (Master's thesis, Near East University, Institute of Educational Sciences). Access address:

  9. Bech, P. (1975). Depression: influence on time estimation and time experiments. Acta Psychiatr Scand, 51(1), 42-50. doi: 10.1111/j.1600-0447.1975.tb00211.x

  10. Beck, A. T., Ward, C. H., Mendelson, M., Mock, J. & Erbaugh, J. (1961). An inventory for measuring depression. Archives of General Psychiatry, 4, 561-71. Access address:

  11. Butcher, N. J. Mineka S. & Hooley, M. J. (2013). Abnormal psychology. (Translated by O. Gündüz). İstanbul: Kaknüs Publications.

  12. Bülbüloğlu, E. (2019). Examining the predictive role of hope, perceived stress and coping attitudes on psychological symptoms. (Master Thesis). Accessed from HEI Thesis Center database (Thesis No: 544969).

  13. Büyüköztürk, Ş., Çokluk, Ö. & Köklü, N. (2013). Statistics for social sciences. Ankara: Pegem Academy.

  14. Büyüköztürk, Ş., Kılıç Çakmak, E., Erkan Akın, Ö., Karadeniz, Ş. & Demirel, F. (2013). Scientific research methods. Ankara: Pegem Academy.

  15. Chang, E. C. & De Simone, S. L. (2001). The influence of hope on appraisals, coping, and dysphoria: a test of hope theory. Journal of Social and Clinical Psychology, 20(2), 117–129. Access address:

  16. Chang, E. C. (2003). A critical appraisal and extension of hope theory in middleaged men and women: is it important to distinguish agency and pathways components?. Journal of Social and Clinical Psychology, 22(2), 121-143. doi: 10.1521/jscp.

  17. Chen, P. & Vazsonyi, A. T. (2013). Future orientation, school contexts, and problem behaviors: a multilevel study. Journal of Youth Adolescence, 42(1), 67-81 doi: 10.1007/s10964-012-9785-4.

  18. Corey, G. (2005). Psychological counseling, psychotherapy theories and applications. (Translated by T Ergene), Ankara: Mentis Publications.

  19. Cutcliffe, J. R. & Herth K. (2002) The concept of hope in nursing: its origins, backround and nature. Br J Nurs, 11(12), 832- 840. doi: 10.12968/bjon.2002.11.12.10307.

  20. Çaylar, G. (2010). Factors affecting the future expectations of university students, the relationships of these factors with each other and the effect of individuals on feelings of depression and anxiety. (Master Thesis). Accessed from HEI Thesis Center database (Thesis No: 271787).

  21. Çelik, K. (2019). The relationship of university students' Facebook use with hopelessness and depression. (Master Thesis, Üsküdar University, Institute of Social Sciences). Access address:

  22. Çöpür, H. (2020). Investigation of the meaning of depression and leisure time in university students. (Master's thesis, Karamanoğlu Mehmet Bey University, Institute of Social Sciences) Access address:

  23. De Volder, M. & Lens, W. (1982). Academic achievement and future time perspective as a cognitive-motivational concept. JournaI of Personality and Social Psychology. 42(3), 566-571. doi: 10.1037/0022-3514.42.3.566

  24. Demirci, R., Acar, G. ve Erdoğan, B. S. (2018). Comparison of students' depression and motivation knowledge levels. Kilis 7 Aralık University Journal of Physical Education and Sport Sciences, 2(1), 36-45. Access address:

  25. Dilbaz, N. & Seber, G. (1993). The concept of hopelessness: depression and its importance in suicide. Crisis Magazine, 1(3), 134-138. Access address:

  26. Evren, B., Evren, C., Dalbudak, E., Topcu, M. ve Kutlu, N. (2019). The impact of depression, anxiety, neuroticism, and severity of Internet addiction symptoms on the relationship between probable ADHD and severity of insomnia among young adults. Psychiatry Research, 271, 726-731. doi: 10.1016/j.psychres.2018.12.010

  27. Feldman, D. B. & Snyder, C. R. (2005). Hope and the meaningful life: theorical and emprical associations between goal-directed thinking and life meaning. Journal of Social and Clinical Psychology, 24 (3), 401-421. Access address:

  28. Geçtan, E. (2006). Psychodynamic psychiatry and abnormal behavior. İstanbul: Metis Publications.

  29. Gjesme, T. (1975), Slope of gradients for performance as a function of achievement motive, goal distance in time, and future time orientation. The Journal of Psychology. 91(1), 143-160.

  30. Göller, L. (2010). Relationships between adolescents' irrational beliefs and their depression-hopelessness levels and their perceived academic achievement. (Master Thesis). Accessed from HEI Thesis Center database (Thesis No: 263836).

  31. Halama, P. (2010). Hope as a mediator between personality traits and life satisfaction. Studia Psychologica, 52 (4), 309- 314. Access address:

  32. Hisli, N. (1989). Validity and reliability of Beck Depression Inventory for university students. Journal of Psychology, 7(33), 8-13. Access address:

  33. Husman, J. E. & Lens, W. (1999). Role of future in student motivation. Educational Psychologist, 34(2), 113-125. Access address:

  34. Husman, J. E. & Shell, D. F. (2008). Beliefs and perceptions about the future: a measurement of future time perspective. Learning and individual differences, 18(2),166-175.

  35. Husman, J., Hilpert, J. C. & Brem, S. K. (2016). Future time perspective connectedness to a career: the contextual effects of classroom knowledge building. Psychologica Belgica, 56(3), 210–225. doi: pb.282

  36. Kara, E. & Ceyhan, A. A. (2017). The relationship between depression levels of university students and mindfulness: the mediating role of self-control. Journal of Cognitive Behavioral Psychotherapy and Research 6 (1), 9-14. doi: 10.5455/JCBPR.251016

  37. Kara, F. (2019). Examining the ways of coping with stress and depression levels of teacher candidates in terms of some variables. (Master Thesis). Accessed from HEI Thesis Center database (Thesis No: 619294).

  38. Karasar, N. (2013). Scientific research method. Ankara: Nobel Publications.

  39. Kaya, S. (2014). Loneliness and future time perception as predictors of university students' satisfaction with life.(Master Thesis). Accessed from HEI Thesis Center database (Thesis No: 361662).

  40. Koç, E. (2008). Gabriel Marcel's philosophy as a metaphysics of hope. SDU Faculty of Arts and Sciences Journal of Social Sciences, (2008)18, 161-184. Access address:

  41. Lang, F. R. & Carstensen, L. L. (2002). Time counts: future time perspective, goals, and social relationships. Psychology and Aging. 17(1), 125–139. Access address:

  42. Lens, W. & Tsuzuki, M. (2005). The role of motivation and future time perspective in educational and career development. The International Conference on “Careers in context: New challenges and tasks for guidance and counseling,” 14-16 September, Lissabon. Erişim adresi:

  43. Lens, W. (1986). Future time perspective: a cognitive-motivational concept. Springer. Frontiers of Motivational Psychology, ISBN: 978-0-387-96444-7 Access address:

  44. MacLeod, A. K., Rose, G. S. & Williams, J. M. G. (1993). Components of hopelessness about the future in parasuicide. Cognitive Therapy and Research,17(5), 441 - 445. Access address:

  45. Marques, S.C., Gallagher, M.W. & Lopez, S.J. (2017). Hope- and academic-related outcomes: a meta-analysis.  School Mental Health,9, 250–262.

  46. Mezey, A. G. & Cohen S. I. (1961). The effect of depressive illness on time judgment and time experience. J Neurol Neurosurg Psychiatry, 24, 269-270. Access address:

  47. Nuttin, J. R. (1964). The future time perspective in human motivation and learning. Acta Psychologia, 23, 60-82. Access address:

  48. Özdel, L., Bostancı, M., Özdel, O. & Oğuzhanoğlu, N. K. (2002). Depressive symptoms in university students and their relationship with socio-demographic characteristics. Anatolian Journal of Psychiatry, 3(3), 155-61. Access address:

  49. Özer, B. & Tezer, E. (2008). Relationships between hope and positive and negative emotions. Dokuz Eylül University Buca Faculty of Education Journal,5(23), Access address:

  50. Öztürk, O. & Uluşahin, A. (2014). Mental health and disorders Volume I. Ankara: Nobel Publications.

  51. Pallant, J. (2017). SPSS user manual: Step-by-step data analysis with SPSS. (Trans. S. Balcı and B. Ahi). Ankara: Anı Publications.

  52. Phan, H. P. (2014). The impact of FTP on commitment to career choices: situating within a social cognitive perspective. Higher Education Research & Development, 34 (2). 368-382.

  53. Phan, H. P., Ngu, B. H. & McQueen, K. (2020). Future time perspective and the achievement of optimal best: reflections, conceptualizations, and future directions for development. Frontiersin Psychology, 3(11),1037. Access address:

  54. San, A., Erensoy, H., Aytaç, H. & Berkol T . (2020) Depression levels in university students; the relationship between substance use and family attitudes. Journal of Addiction. 21(1), 1-12. Access address:

  55. Sanatani, M., Schreier, G. & Stitt, L. (2008), Level and direction of hope in cancer patients: an exploratory longitudinal study. Support Care Cancer, 16(5), 493–499. doi: 10.1007 / s00520-007-0336-6.

  56. Seginer, R. & Lens, W. (2015) The motivation properties of future time perspective future orientation: different approaches, different cultures. In: Stolarski M., Fieulaine N. & Beek W. (Editors) Time perspective theory; examination, Research and Application. Springer, Cham. Access address:

  57. Shell, D. F. & Husman, J. (2001). The multivariate dimensionality of personal control and future time perspective beliefs in achievement and self-regulation. Contemporary educational psychology, 26(4), 481-506. Access address:

  58. Simons, J., Vansteenkiste, M., Lens, W. & Lacante, M. (2004). Placing motivation and future time perspective theory in a temporal perspective. Educational PsychologyReview,16(2),121-139.doi:  10.1023/B:EDPR.0000026609.94841.2f

  59. Snyder, C. R. (2002). Hope theory: rainbows in the mind. Psychological Inquiry, 13(4), 249–275. doi: 10.1207 / S15327965PLI1304_01

  60. Snyder, C. R. (2005). Teaching: the lessons of hope. Journal of Social and Clinical Psychology, 24(1), 72- 84. doi: 10.1521/jscp.

  61. Snyder, C. R., Harris, C, Anderson, J. R., Holleran, S. A., Irving, L. M., Sigmon, S. T., Yoshinobu, L., Gibb, J., Langelle, C. & Harney, P. (1991). The will and the ways: development and validation of an individual-differences measure of hope. J Pers Soc Psychol, 60(4):570-85. doi: 10.1037//0022-3514.60.4.570. PMID: 2037968.

  62. Tarhan, S. (2012), Prediction of hope from self-efficacy, perceived social support, and personality traits. (Doctorate Thesis). Accessed from HEI Thesis Center database (Thesis No: 317183).

  63. Tarhan, S. & Bacanlı, H. (2015). Adaptation of Trait Hope Scale to Turkish: validity and reliability study. The Journal of Happiness & Well-Being, 3(1), 1-14. Access address:

  64. Tarhan, U. (2020). Successful human model of the future t-human. Istanbul: Support Publications.

  65. Tysk, L. (1984) Time perception and affective disorders. Percept Motor Skills, 58(2), 455- 464. Access address:

  66. Usta, F. (2013), The relationship between university students' psychological well-being and hope levels. (Master Thesis). Accessed from HEI Thesis Center database (Thesis No: 336034).

  67. Vazquez, S. M. & Rapetti, M. V. (2006). Future time perspective and motivational categories in argentinean adolescent. Adolescence, 41(163), 511-532. Erişim adresi:

  68. Willy , L., Paixão, M. P., Herrera, D. & Grobler, A. (2012). Future time perspective as a motivational variable: content and extension of future goals affect the quantity and quality of motivation. The Japonese Psychologıcal Assocıation, 54 (3). 321-333. doi: 10.1111/j.1468-5884.2012.00520.x

  69. Yıldız, B. (2017). The effect of future time perspective on tourism geography course on course success. (Master Thesis). Accessed from HEI Thesis Center database (Thesis No: 469636 ).

  70. Yıldız, E. E. (2018). Examining the hopes and anxiety levels of university students for the future according to some variables. (Master Thesis). Accessed from HEI Thesis Center database (Thesis No: 504971).

  71. Yücel, C. (2020). The relationship between the state of depressive symptoms and the level of hopelessness in the senior students of Erciyes University Faculty of Medicine. (Master Thesis). Accessed from HEI Thesis Center database (Thesis No: 648765).

bottom of page