Journal of Economics and Business

ISSN 2615-3726 (Online)

ISSN 2621-5667 (Print)

Published: 13 March 2020

The Diaspora and the Process of Economic Development in Cameroon

Saidou Baba Oumar, Urie Eléazar Jumbo, Salihu Zummo Hayatudeen

University of Buea (Cameroon), University of Dschang (Cameroon), Modibbo Adama University of Technology (Nigeria)

Download Full-Text Pdf


Pages: 344-362

Keywords: Community, Development, Employment, Migration, Poverty, Remittance


The greener pasture syndrome erupts on the African continent in 1980s, two decades after attainment of independence for most former colonies from the colonial powers. Today in 2020, some forty years after, the syndrome continues to register more disciples from the continent due to economic hardships that threaten a greater portion of her population. Consequently, the movement of people towards the promise land from poor to rich countries across the world amplifies to the extent that some industrialised countries find themselves invaded by emigrants of all types. In Cameroon for example, this type of migration concerns the intellectuals who are not employed or those who are underemployed in the country. Cameroonians of this category often cross the national boundaries to Europe, Canada, United States [US] and as of 1990 South Africa [SA] to pick up jobs that can fetch them better salary package than what is offered at home. This paper employs the simple descriptive method of data analysis to capture the objectives of the inquiry using simple percentages, tables and diagrams to interpret the data. Besides, the paper generates its data from personal observations and structured interviews with community members and from secondary sources. And generally on arrival to destination, the Diaspora people team up in form of social ethnic groups or village associations to reflect on the problems besetting their relations and give a helping hand towards alleviating the living conditions of their people back home. Results of the paper reveal that these Diaspora alliances have rendered immense services to their respective communities as regards poverty mitigation in families, construction of private houses, and provision of social infrastructures such as first aid centres, school equipments and water supply points, on one hand. On the other hand, they have also inflicted severe harms to their communities back home. Thus, the paper recommends that the Government of Cameroon [GoC] recognises and incorporates the Diaspora potentials into the country’s development strategies so as to accelerate its participation to the economic development equation and process of the economy.


  1. AllAfrica (2019). Africa: Remittances to Africa overtakes foreign direct investment. Retrieved December 08, 2019 from
  2. Amin, S. (1974). Accumulation on a world scale. New York: Monthly Review Press.
  3. Amin, S. (1976). Unequal development: An essay on the social formations of peripheral capitalism. New York: Monthly Review Press.
  4. Andzongo, S. (2019a). “4400 schools closed in Cameroon’s Anglophone regions amid secessionist crisis”, Focus. In Business in Cameroon, No. 79:11. Retrieved October 07, 2019 from
  5. Andzongo, S. (2019b). “60-80% of agribusinesses are out of access in Northwest and Southwest Cameroon due to unrest”, Focus. In Business in Cameroon, No. 79:12. Retrieved October 07, 2019 from
  6. Balassa, B. (1971). The structure of protection in developing countries. Baltimore, USA: Johns Hopkins Press.
  7. Balassa, B. (1982). Development strategies in semi-industrial economies. Baltimore, USA: Johns Hopkins Press.
  8. Baran, P. A. (1957). The political economy of growth. New York: Monthly Review Press.
  9. Bauer, P. T. (1984). Reality and rhetoric: Studies in the economics of development. London: Weidenfield & Nicolson.
  10. Bhagwati, J. N. (1978). Anatomy and consequences of exchange control regimes. Cambridge: Ballinger Publishing Company.
  11. Boeke, J. H. (1953). Economics and economic policy of dual societies. New York: International Secretariat, Institute of Pacific Relations.
  12. Bongang, M. N. (2019). Statement from MTN corporate communications Manager.
  13. Bornman J. (2018). Rwanda “follows its opposition and kills them”, New Frame, 13 November 2018. Retrieved November 27, 2019 from
  14. Business in Cameroon (2019). The outstanding cost of the Anglophone crisis, No. 79, September.  Retrieved October 07, 2019 from
  15. Cardoso, F. H. (1977). The consumption of dependency theory in the United States. Latin American Research Review, 12(3), 19-20.
  16. Chenery, H. B. (1960). Patterns of industrial growth. American Economic Review, 50(3), 624-654.
  17. Chenery, H. B., & Syrquin, M. (1975). Patterns of development: 1950-1970. New York: Oxford University Press.
  18. Chenery, H. B., & Taylor, L. J. (1968). Development patterns among countries and over time. Review of Economics and Statistics, 50(4), 391-416.
  19. Commission for Africa [CA] (2005). Our common interest. Report of the Commission for Africa. Retrieved December 09, 2019 from
  20. De Monchrétien, A. (1891). Les tragedies de Monchrétien. Paris: Nourritet Cie.
  21. De Montclos, M. P. (2003). Les diasporas africaines et leur pays d’origine, Esprit, 27 (300), 114– 124.
  22. De Montclos, M. P. (2005). Diasporas, remittances and Africa South of the Sahara: A strategic assessment, Pretoria: Institute for Security Studies [ISS] Monograph Series No. 112. Retrieved December 05, 2019 from
  23. Domar, E. D. (1947). Expansion and employment. American Economic Review, 37(1), 34-45.
  24. Dos Santos, T. (1969). The crisis of development theory and the problem of dependence in Latin America. Siglo, 21, 36-54.
  25. Dos Santos, T. (1973).The crisis of development theory and the problem of dependence in Latin America. In H. Bernstein (ed.). Underdevelopment and development: The third world today, 57-79. New York: Penguim Books.
  26. Easterly, W. R. (2001). The elusive quest for growth: Economists’ adventures and misadventures in the tropics. Cambridge: Massachusetts Institute of Technology Press.
  27. Egbe, C., & Ndubisi, C. (1998). Institutional factors and immigrant investment in homeland: Nigerians in the USA. In A. Nwaneri (ed). Nigeria: Visions for the future, Ibadan: Macmillan.
  28. European Investment Bank [EIB] (2006). Study on improving the efficiency of workers’ remittances in Mediterranean countries. FTF/REG/01/2005 Final Report, Rotterdam: EIB. Retrieved December 08, 2019 from
  29. Fei, J. C. H., & Ranis, G. (1964). Development of the labour surplus economy: Theory and policy.  Homewood, ILL: Richard Irwin.
  30. Franck, A. G. (1967). Capitalism and underdevelopment in Latin America. New York: Monthly Review Press.
  31. Galeano, E. (1973). Open veins of Latin America. New York: Monthly Review Press.
  32. Geographical Planet Survey [GPS] data 2018
  33. Ghosh, B. (2006). Migrants’ remittances and development: Myths, rhetoric and realities, Genrva,  Switzerland: IOM and Den Haag, The Netherlands: The Hague Process on Refugees and Migration [THPRM]. Retrieved December 08, 2019 from
  34. Guebourg, J. (1995). Migrants et clandestins de la Grande Comore, Cahiers d’Outre-Mer,
    48 (191) ,295–318.
  35. Guterres, A. (2019). Forward. In UN (2019). The sustainable development goals report 2019, New York: UN. Retrieved December 30, 2019 from
  36. Harrod, R. F. (1939). An essay in dynamic theory. The Economic Journal, 49(193), 14-33.
  37. Higgins, B. (1956). The dualistic theory of underdeveloped areas: Economic development and cultural change. Chicago: The University of Chicago Press.
  38. International Crisis Group [ICG] (2017). Cameroon’s Anglophone crisis at the crossroads, Africa  Report No. 250. Brussels, Belgium: ICG. Retrieved October 07, 2019 from
  39. International Crisis Group (2019). “International Crisis Group says 20 months’ riots in Anglophone regions killed 1850”. In B. R. Mbodiam (2019). Interview. In Business in Cameroon, No. 79, 13. Retrieved October 07, 2019 from
  40. Jevons, W. S. (1871). The theory of political economy. London: Macmillan.
  41. Johnson, H. (1971). A word to the third world: A western economist’s frank advice. Encounter, 37, 3-10.
  42. Jorgenson, D. W. (1961). Development of a dual economy. Economic Journal, 61, 309-334.
  43. Keynes, J. M. (1936). The general theory of employment, interest, and money. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
  44. Koser, K. (2002). Une Diaspora divisée? Transferts et transformations au sein de la Diaspora Erythréenne, Politique africaine, 85,64–74.
  45. Krueger, A. O. (1978). Foreign trade attempts and economic development: Liberalization attempts and consequences. Cambridge: Ballinger Publishing Company.
  46. Lal, D. (1985). The poverty of ‘development economics. Cambridge: Harvard University Press.
  47. Lewis, W. A. (1954). Economic development with unlimited supplies of labour. The ManchesterSchool, 22(2), 139-191.
  48. Lipton, M. (1977). Why poor people stay poor: Urban bias in world development. London: Temple Smith Press.
  49. Little, I. (1982). Economic development: Theories, policies, and international relations. New York: Basic Books.
  50. Malthus, R. T. (1798). An essay on the principle of population. London: Macmillan.
  51. Marshall, A. (1890). Principles of economic: An introductory volume. Canada, Rod Hay‟s Archive for the History of Economic Thought of MacMaster University. Retrieved February 11, 2015 from
  52. Mbodiam, B.R. (2019a). “Socio-economic impacts of the Anglophone crisis in Cameroon”. Focus. In Business in Cameroon, No.79, 8. Retrieved October 07, 2019 from
  53. Mbodiam, B.R. (2019b). “MTN Cameroon’s 60% market share in the Anglophone region affected by
    ongoing crisis”. Focus. In Business in Cameroon, No. 79, 9. Retrieved October 07, 2019  from
  54. Mbodiam, B.R. (2019c). “CDC expected to partially resume activities in Q3, 2019, after a violence-induced XAF32 bln loss in 2018”. Focus. In Business in Cameroon, No. 79, 10. Retrieved October 07, 2019 from
  55. Menger, C. (1976). Principles of economics. Auburn, Alabama, USA: Ludwig von Mises Institute.  Retrieved March 13, 2015 from
  56. Ministère de l’Administration Territoriale et de la Décentralisation [MINATD] (2013). Annuaire  statistique du MINATD: Le MINATD en chiffres, Edition 2013, Yaoundé: MINATD. Retrieved September 09, 2019 from annuaire_statistique_minatd_...
  57. Ministry of Economy, Planning and Regional Development [MINEPRD] (2012). Buea communal  development plan (CDP). Yaoundé: MINEPRD. Retrieved September 09, 2019 from
  58. Mohapatra, S., & Ratha, D. (s.a). Migrant remittances in Africa: An overview, Chap 1, 1-68. Retrieved December 08, 2019 from
  59. Mun, T. (1621). A discourse of trade from England unto East Indies. London: Nicholas Okes for John Pyper.
  60. Mun, T. (1664). England’s treasure by forraign trade or the balance of our foreign trade is the rule of our treasures. London: Printed by J. G. for Thomas Clark.
  61. National Institute of Cartography [NIC] (1975). Road map of Cameroon
  62. Nations Unies [NU] (2018). Le développement économique en Afrique : les migrations au service de la transformation structurelle, Rapport 2018, New York, Genève : NU
  63. Pieterse, J. N. (2010). Development theory: Deconstructions/reconstructions. London: Sage Publications.
  64. (2019). Cameroun. Retrieved December 09, 2019 from
  65. Radio France Internationale [RFI] (2019). Rwanda: polémique après les propos de Kagame sur  l'assassinat d'un opposant, RFI Afrique, 14 March 2019. Retrieved November 27, 2019
  66. Ranis, G., & Fei, J. C. H. (1961). A theory of economic development. American Economic Review, LI (3), 533-565.
  67. Ratha D., & Mohapatra, S. (2007). Increasing the macroeconomic impact of remittances on development. Retrieved December 06, 2019 from
  68. Ratha D., Mohapatra, S., Özden, C., Plaza, S., Shaw, W., & Shimeles, A. (2011). Leveraging migration for Africa: Remittances, skills, and investments, Washington DC, USA: Development Prospects Group, WB. Retrieved December 08, 2019 from……Book.pdf
  69. Ricardo, D. (1817). On the principles of political economy and taxation. London: John Murray.
  70. Rodney, W. A. (1972). How Europe underdeveloped Africa. London: Bogle L’Ouverture.
  71. Rodrik, D. (2008). The real exchange rate and economic growth. Brookings Papers on Economic  Activity, 2, 365-412. Retrieved March 13, 2015 from
  72. Rolley S (2019). Rwanda: Paul Kagame met en garde, l'opposition s'inquiète, RFI Afrique, 15 Novembre 2019. Retrieved November 27, 2019 from
  73. Rostow, W. W. (1960). The stages of economic growth: A non-communist manifesto. Cambridge:  Cambridge University Press.
  74. Sadi, R. E. (2019). “Government has taken measures to ensure a secure and successful school year in the Anglophone regions, Minister Sadi informs”. Public management. In Business in Cameroon, No. 79, 20. Retrieved October 07, 2019 from
  75. Sembajwe, I. (1993). Effects of emigration to South Africa on Lesotho’s demography and economy. In M. Touré & T. O. Fadayomi (eds). Migrations et urbanisation au sud du Sahara, Paris: Karthala.
  76. Smith, A. (1776). An inquiry into the nature and causes of the wealth of nations. Reprinted in 1976, United Kingdom: Clarendon Press.
  77. Solow, R. M. (1956). A contribution to the theory of economic growth. The Quartely Journal of Economics, 70(1), 56-94.
  78. Steuart, J. (1767). Inquiry into the principles of political economy. Canada: Rod Hay’s Archive for the History of Economic Thought of MacMaster University. Retrieved February 11, 2015 from
  79. Stiglitz, J. E. (2002). Globalization and its discontents. New York: W.W. Norton & Company.
  80. Streeten, P. P. (1979). A basic-needs approach to economic development. In K. P. Jameson, & C. K. Wilber (eds.). Directions in economic development, Paris: University of Notre Dame  Press.
  81. Sunkel, O. (1966). The structural background of development problems in Latin America. Deutschland: Weltwirtschaftliches Archiv, 97(1), 22.
  82. Toumba, O. (2019). Sketch of geographical map of Northwest, Southwest and West regions of Cameroon. Drawn in December 2019
  83. United Nations [UN] (s.a). Transforming our world: The 2030 agenda for sustainable development, A/RES/70/1. Retrieved December 30, 2019 from
  84. UN (2005). United Nations Office of the Special Adviser on Africa, Press Release. New York: UN.
  85. UN (2019). The sustainable development goals report 2019, New York: UN. Retrieved December 30, 2019 from
  86. United Nations Department of Economic and Social Affairs [UNDESA] (2017). International migration stock: 2017 revision, New York: UN. Retrieved December 29, 2019 from
  87. UNDP (s.a). Sustainable development goals. Retrieved December 30, 2019 from
  88. United Nations Development Programme [UNDP]. (2014). The millennium development goals: Eight goals for 2015. New York: UNDP. Retrieved April 09, 2015 from
  89. Wallerstein, I. M. (1980). The modern world-system II: Mercantilism and the consolidation of the  European world economy. New York: Academic Press.
  90. Walras, L. (1899). Elements of pure economics or the theory of social wealth. Homewood, ILL: Richard Irwin.
  91. Weiss, T. L. (1998). Migrants nigérians, la diaspora dans le Sud-Ouest du Cameroun, Paris: L’Harmattan.
  92. Woodbridge, M. (2015). From MDGs to SDGs: What are the sustainable development goals? ICLEI BRIEFING SHEET-Urban Issues, No. 01. Retrieved December 30, 2019 from
  93. World Bank [WB] (2003). Somalia: Socio economic survey 2002, Report No. 1, Somalia Watching Brief 2003, Nairobi, Kenya: WB. Retrieved December 08, 2019 from
  94. WB (2006). Global economic prospects: Economic implications of remittances and migration. Washington DC, USA: WB. Retrieved December 08, 2019 from
  95. WB (2011). Migration and remittances factbook 2011. Washington DC, USA: WB.

About Us

The Asian Institute of Research is an online and open-access platform to publish recent research and articles of scholars worldwide. Founded in 2018 and based in Indonesia, the Institute serves as a platform for academics, educators, scholars, and students from Asia and around the world, to connect with one another. The Institute disseminates research that is proven or predicted to be of significant influence for the general public.

Stay Connected

  • Instagram - Black Circle
  • Facebook - Black Circle
  • LinkedIn - Black Circle

Contact Us

Please send all inquiries to the email:

Business Address:

5th Floor, Kavling 507, Fajar Graha Pena Tower, Jl. Urip Sumohardjo No.20, Makassar, Indonesia 90234

Copyright © 2018 The Asian Institute of Research. All rights reserved