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Asian Institute of Research, Journal Publication, Journal Academics, Education Journal, Asian Institute
Asian Institute of Research, Journal Publication, Journal Academics, Education Journal, Asian Institute

Journal of Health and Medical Sciences

ISSN 2622-7258

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open access

Published: 22 December 2023

Gangs, Low Detection Rates, and Educational Achievement: Major Drivers of Violence

Mandreker Bahall

The University of the West Indies

journal of social and political sciences
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Pages: 237-252

Keywords: crime burden, Republic of Trinidad and Tobago, crime, gang violence, crime detection levels


This study analyses violent crimes (murder, kidnapping, incest, sexual offences, rape, and suicide), their drivers, and associated factors. This descriptive study employs secondary violent crime data from Trinidad and Tobago over at least two decades. The data were collected from multiple search engines and websites and included the socio-demographics of perpetrators, gang and gun-related violence, crime detection levels, and socio-economic factors. A descriptive analysis was used to determine associations between these factors and crime rates. Overall, major crimes rose by 790% between 1990 and 2022, rising from 7.94 per 100,000 people in 1990 to 70.63 in 2022. The number of crime victims cumulatively increased from 7541 in 2013 to 68 322 in 2022, surging by 806%. Moreover, the number of people indirectly affected (family, friends, and members of the community) are estimated (using 10 per victim) to be at least 600 000 or half the population. The analysis shows no association between violent crimes and employment level, income, or national security and social welfare budgets. However, school performance/educational status, gang numbers, and detection rates are correlated with violent crime, suggesting that these factors are the driving forces behind violent crimes.


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