Journal of Social and Political
ISSN 2615-3718 (Online)
ISSN 2621-5675 (Print)
Published: 22 July 2020
Assessment of Government Response to Socioeconomic Impact of Covid-19 Pandemic in Nigeria
Olu Awofeso, Paul A. Irabor
Obafemi Awolowo University (Nigeria), Kings University (Nigeria)
Download Full-Text Pdf
Keywords: Nigeria, Socioeconomic, Informal Economy, Covid-19 Pandemic, Lockdown
Since the Nigerian economy is largely dominated by informal workers, the preventive measures (lockdown, movement restriction, social distancing and interstate travel ban) occasioned by Covid-19 pandemic will affect socioeconomic livelihood in Nigeria. Relying on secondary sources, this study examines socioeconomic challenges of Covid-19 pandemic in Nigeria, analyses and evaluates government response to curbing its effect on livelihood in Nigeria. Results from the study find bearings between Covid-19 pandemic and low socioeconomic livelihood in Nigeria. Palliative measures introduced by the government to minimize the effect of Covid-19 pandemic are largely ineffective owing to poor coordination, human right violations as well as inadequate fiscal policy. Recommendations from the study draws on the need for the government to diversify the economy by promoting the informal and agricultural sectors, facilitate infrastructural development and improve health facilities, to avoid economic recession of post Covid-19 pandemic in Nigeria.
Abara, E. (2020). Updated: List of all Companies and Billionaires that have contributed to COVID-19 Relief Fund. Nairametrics, Available:https://nairametrics.com/2020/04/18/list-of-all-companies-and-billionaires-that-have-contributed-to-covid-19-relief-fund/ Accessed 23 June 2020.
Adeniran, A., Sidiq, B. (2018). Economic Recession and the Way-out: Nigeria As case Study. Global Journal of Human Social Science, 18(1), pp. 181-192.
Adesoji, D. (2014). Socioeconomic Characteristics and Satisfaction of Tenants in Public Housing in Lagos,Nigeria. Africa Development / Afrique et Développement, 9 (3), pp. 31-50.
Akhbar-Williams, T. (2010). "Class Structure". In Smith, Jessie C. (ed.), Encyclopedia of African American Popular Culture,(1), ABC-CLIO. p. 322.
Al-Ghwell, H. (2020). Why Nigeria Must Diversify from Oil and why it won’t. Arab News. Available: https://arab.news/c5dqs.Accessed 2 June, 2020.
Aluko F, Arowolo D (2010). Foreign Aid, the Third World Debt Crisis and the Implication for Economic Development: The Nigerian Experience. African Journal of Political Science and International Relation, 4(4) pp. 120-127.
Amasi, O. (2016). “Economic Recession through the Lens of Enterprenuers and the Private Sector”. Being a Paper Presented at a Symposium Organized by the Department of Economics, University of Uyo, Uyo, Akwa Ibom State, on Nigeria’s Economic Recession.
Amnesty International (2020). Nigeria: Authorities Must Uphold Human Rights in Fight to Curb Covid-19. Available: https://www.amnesty.org/en/latest/news/2020/04/nigeria-covid-19/Accessed 23 June, 2020.
Arinze, F., Ogwu, S., Aliyu, A. (2020). Nigeria: Job Cuts Loom As COVID-19 Takes Toll On Private Sector. AllAfrica. Available: https://allafrica.com/stories/202004060843.html Accessed 23 June, 2020.
AwojobI, O., Ayakpat, J., Adisa, O. (2014). Rebased Nigerian Gross Domestic Product: The Role of the Informal Sector in the Development of the Nigerian Economy. International Journal of Education and Research, 2 (7) pp. 301-316.
Babanyara, Y., Usman, H., Saleh, U. (2010). An Overview of Urban Poverty and Environmental Problems in Nigeria. Journal of Human Ecology 31(2): pp 135-143.
Baizidi, R. (2019). Paradoxical Class: Paradox of Interest and Political Conservatism in Middle Class. Asian Journal of Political Science. 27 (3) pp. 72–285, doi:10.1080/02185377.2019.1642772
Bjørnland, H. (2000). The Dynamic Effects of Aggregate Demand, Supply and Oil Price Shocks—A Comparative Study. The Manchester School, 68 (5), pp. 578-607.
Brown, D. (2009). “Social Class and Status”. In Mey, Jacob (ed.). Concise Encyclopedia of Pragmatics. Elsevier. p. 953.
Campbell, J. (2020). Presidential Gatekeeper and Confidant, Abba Kyari, Dies From COVID-19. Council on Foregin Relations, April 21. Available: https://www.cfr.org/blog/presidential-gatekeeper-and- confidant-abba-kyari-diescovid-19 Accessed June 30, 2020.
Campbell, J., McCaslin, J. (2020). How Nigeria Has Responded to COVID-19 So Far. COVID-19. Council on Foregin Relations, April 28. Available: https://www.cfr.org/blog/how- nigeria-has-responded-covid-19-so-far Accessed June 30, 2020.
Chakraborty. R. (2017). Epidemics. Encyclopedia of Global Bioethics. DOI 10.1007/978-3-319-05544-2_174-3
Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) (2020). Human Coronavirus Types. Available: https://www.cdc.gov/coronavirus/types.html Accessed, 03 June 2020.
Central Bank of Nigeria (CBN). (2015). Economic and Financial Review 53 (4) pp 1-150. Available:https://www.cbn.gov.ng/Out/2018/RSD/CBN%20EFR%20Vol%2053%20No %204%20December%202015.pdf, Accessed 20 June 2020.
Darin-Mattsson, A., Fors, S., Kåreholt, I. (2017). Different Indicators of Socioeconomic Status and their Relative Importance as Determinants of Health in Old Age. International Journal for Equity in Health (16):173, DOI 10.1186/s12939-017-0670-3.
Davis, J., Dolfsma, W. (2008). “Social economics: an introduction and a view of the field”, in Davis, John B.; Dolfsma, Wilfred (eds.), The Elgar Companion to Social Economics, Cheltenham, UK Northampton, Massachusetts: Edward Elgar, pp. 1–7.
Fapohunda, T. (2013). Reducing Unemployment through the Informal Sector in Nigeria International Journal of Management Sciences, 1, (7), pp. 232-244.
Feyisipo, R. (2020). Coronavirus: There Will Be No Lockdown In Oyo, says Gov. Makinde. Business Day, April 27, 2020. Available:https://businessday.ng/coronavirus/article/coronavirus-there-will-be-no- lockdown-in-oyo-says-gov-makinde/
Heath, A., Martin, J. and Beerten, R. (2003). ‘Old and New Social Class Measures’ in D. Rose and D.J. Pevalin (eds.) A Researcher’s Guide to the National Statistics Socio-economic Classification. London: Sage.
Hellmich, S. (2015). What is Socioeconomics? An Overview of Theories, Methods, and Themes in the Field. Forum for Social Economics 44 (1), 1-23.
International Labour Organization (2003). Guidelines Concerning a Statistical Definition of Informal Employment, Endorsed by the Seventeenth International Conference of Labour Statisticians (November-December 2003); in: Seventeenth International Conference of Labour Statisticians (Geneva, 24 November - 3 December 2003), Report of the Conference; Doc. ICLS/17/2003/R; International Labour Office, Geneva.
Ismail, M., Imoughele, L. (2015). Macroeconomic Determinants of Economic Growth in Nigeria: A Cointegration Approach. International Journal of Academic Research in Economics and Management Sciences, 4(1), pp.34–46. http://doi.org/10.6007/IJAREMS/v4-i1/1485.
Kwanga, C. (2015). Nigeria’s Rebased 2013 GDP: Contending the Debate. Journal of Humanities and Social Science, 20, (3), pp. PP 27-34 DOI: 10.9790/0837-20332734 www.iosrjournals.org.
Kyambalesa, M. (2009). Socio-economic Challenges: The African context. African Affairs, 108, (430) pp. 144– 145, https://doi.org/10.1093/afraf/adn070
Liu, W. (2010). Social Class and Classism in the Helping Professions: Research, Theory, and Practice. SAGE. pp 29.
Locke, J. (1689). ‘The Second Treatise of Government’, in Two Treatises of Government, Peter Laslett (ed.), Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 283–446.
Mark A. (2009). ‘Social Economics’ in Jan Peil and Irene van Staveren (ed.), Handbook of Economics and Ethics, pp. 516-22, Edward Elgar Publishing.
Nastav, B., Bojnec, S. (2008). Small Businesses and the Shadow Economy. Czech Journal of Economics and Finance, Vol. 58, Issue 01-02, pp. 68-81.
National Bureau of Statistics (NBS) (2020). GDP. Available: https://www.nigerianstat.gov.ng/Accessed 23 June, 2020.
National Bureau of Statistics (NBS) (2010). National Manpower Stock and Employment Generation Survey: Household and Micro Enterprise (Informal Sector) Available: http://www.nigerianstat.gov.ng/download/403, Accessed 23 July, 2020.
National Human Right Commission (2020). National Human Rights Commission Press Release On Covid-19 Enforcement So Far Report On Incidents Of Violation Of Human Rights. Available:https://www.nigeriarights.gov.ng/nhrc-media/press-release/100nationalhuman- rights- commission-press-release-on-covid-19-enforcement-so-far-report-on-incidents-ofviolation-of-human- rights.html Accessed 24 June, 2020.
Nnanna, J.(2020). An Overview of the Economic Impact of COVID-19 Pandemic on Nigeria. Business Day. Available: https://businessday.ng/author/businessday2015/Accessed 23 June 2020.
Meyer N., Meyer D. (2016). The Relationship between the Creation of an Enabling Environment and Economic Development: A Comparative Analysis of Management at Local Government Sphere Polish Journal of Management Studies, 14 (2) pp.150-160, DOI: 10.17512/pjms.2016.14.2.14
Michael, M. (2004). The Status Syndrome: How Social Standing Affects Our Health and Longevity. New York: Owl Books.
Nigeria Centre for Disease Control (NCDC) (2020). Coronavirus Disease (COVID-19) Pandemic. Available: https://covid19.ncdc.gov.ng/Accessed, 22 June 2020.
Njoku, L., Ebiri, K., Olumide, S., Musa, N., Agboluaje, R. (2020). Why Controversy over FG’s COVID-19 Palliatives Persists. TheGuardian, Available: https://guardian.ng/news/why-controversy-over-fgs- covid- 19-palliatives-persists/ Accessed 23 June, 2020.
Nlebem, A. (2020) Updated: Reps Pass 2020 Revised Budget, Raise Sum to N10.805 Trillion. Available:https://businessday.ng/budget-ng/article/updated-reps-pass-2020-revised-budget-raise-sum-to-n10-805-trillion/ Accessed, 23 June, 2020.
Muthu, V. (2005). A Short Handbook of Public Health.Jaypee Brothers Med. Publishers (P) Ltd, New Delhi.
Odima, O. (2020). COVID-19 Pandemic and Corruption in Nigeria. This Day, April 26. Available:https://www.thisdaylive.com/index.php/2020/04/26/covid-19-pandemic-and-corruption-in- nigeria/ Accessed June 30, 2020.
Ogbuabor, J., Malaolu, V. (2013). Size and Causes of the Informal Sector of the Nigerian Economy: Evidence from Error Correction Mimic Model. Journal of Economics and Sustainable Development, 4,(1): 85-103.
Ohia, C., Bakarey, A., Ahmad, T. (2020). COVID-19 and Nigeria: Putting the Realities in Context. International Journal of Infectious Diseases, (95) pp. 279-281.
Oladipo S., Fabayo, J. (2012). Global Recession, Oil Sector and Economic Growth in Nigeria. Asian Transactions on Basic and Applied Sciences, 1 (6) pp. 29-41.
Olorunbi, R. (2020) Coronavirus: Nigeria’s Access Bank Announces Salary Cuts to Curb Job Loss. Theafricareport, Available: https://www.theafricareport.com/27379/coronavirus-nigerias-access-bank-announces-salary-cuts-to-curb-job-loss/Accessed 23 June, 2020.
Olotuah, A. (2015). Accessibility of Low-Income Earners to Public Housing in Ado-Ekiti, Nigeria. Civil and E nvironmental Research, 7 (7):1- 6.
Olotuah, A., Taiwo, A. (2013). Housing the Urban Poor in Nigeria Through Low-Cost Housing Schemes. International Journal of Physical and Human Geography, 1 (3) pp.1-8.
Onwuzoo, A. (2020). School Feeding: Nigeria Spends N679m Daily, Yet 50% Under-five Children Malnourished. Healthwise,Available: https://healthwise.punchng.com/school-feeding-nigeria-spends-n679m-daily-yet-50-under-five-children-malnourished/ Accessed 23 June, 2020.
Onyekwena, C., Ekeruche, M. (2020). Understanding the Impact of the COVID-19 Outbreak on the Nigerian Economy. Available: https://www.brookings.edu/blog/africa-in- focus/2020/04/08/understanding-the-impact-of-the-covid-19-outbreak-on-the-nigerian- economy/ Accessed 23 June 2020.
Patrick, R., Daniel Krewski (2016). Reviewing the History of Pandemic Influenza: Understanding Patterns of Emergence and Transmission. Pathogens (5) 66, pp.1-19.
Peiris, J., Lai S., Poon L. (2003). Coronavirus as a Possible cause of Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome. The Lancet, 361(9366) pp.1319- 1325.
Qiu, W., Rutherford, A., Mao, C. (2017). The Pandemic and its Impacts. Health, Culture and Society, 9–10, DOI 10.5195/hcs.2017.221 Available: http://hcs.pitt.edu Accessed June 20, 2020.
Shrikrushna, S., Quazi, B., Shubham S., Suraj T., Shreya W., Rohit B., Suraj S., Biyani, K. (2020). A Review on Corona Virus (Covid-19). World Journal of Pharmaceutical and Life Sciences 6, (4), 109-115.
Stephen, J. (2016). The Growing Size and Incomes of the Upper Middle Class. Urban Institute Research Report . Available: https://www.urban.org/sites/default/files/publication/81581/2000819-The-Growing-Size-and-Incomes-of-the-Upper-Middle-Class.pdfAccessed, June 21, 2020.
World Bank (2014). Nigeria Economic Report, No. 2. Available: http://documents.albankaldawli.org/curated/ar/337181468100145688/pdf/896300WP0Ni ger0Box0385289B00PUBLIC0.pdf Accessed, 21 June, 2020.
World Health Organization (WHO) (2020). Coronavirus. Available: https://www.who.int/health- topics/coronavirus Accessed 03 April 2020.
Wuhan Municipal Health Commission (2019). Report of Clustering Pneumonia of Unknown Etiology in Wuhan City China. Available: http://wjw.wuhan.gov.cn/front/web/showDetail/201912310898%209 Accessed 03 April 2020.
Yusuf, A. (2014). Informal Sector and Employment Generation in Nigeria. MPRA Paper No. 55538, Available: http://mpra.ub.uni-muenchen.de/55538/