top of page
Asian Institute of Research, Journal Publication, Journal Academics, Education Journal, Asian Institute
Asian Institute of Research, Journal Publication, Journal Academics, Education Journal, Asian Institute

Journal of Social and Political


ISSN 2615-3718 (Online)

ISSN 2621-5675 (Print)

asia insitute of research, journal of social and political sciences, jsp, aior, journal publication, humanities journal, social journa
asia insitute of research, journal of social and political sciences, jsp, aior, journal publication, humanities journal, social journa
asia insitute of research, journal of social and political sciences, jsp, aior, journal publication, humanities journal, social journa
asia insitute of research, journal of social and political sciences, jsp, aior, journal publication, humanities journal, social journa
open access

Published: 29 October 2023

Victim-Oriented Humanistic Policing as a New Model in Improving Services for Victims of Sexual Violent Crimes: Comparative Study of Indonesian Police, Japanese, and New Zealand

Aruma Chandra Dewi, Adrianus Eliasta Meliala, Iqrak Sulhin

Universitas Indonesia

journal of social and political sciences
pdf download

Download Full-Text Pdf



Pages: 89-109

Keywords: Sexual Violent Crimes, Crime Victim Services, National Police, Victim-Oriented Humanistic Policing


This research aims to examine service models for victims of sexual violent crimes in three countries, namely Indonesia, Japan, and New Zealand. The research uses a descriptive-qualitative approach. The method used is case study comparison to then produce a new theoretical model related to victim-oriented humanistic policing (VOHP) for adaptation in Indonesia. Based on the identification and interpretation of research data using the Hoefnagels (1969) criminal policy analysis framework and Paterson's (2022) victim-oriented policing policy analysis, five new theoretical approaches were found regarding VOHP services for victims of sexual violent crimes in Indonesia. The five approaches include sustainable mentoring, practical interview skills, advocacy support, technology mastery, and strategic partnerships. These five new concepts emphasize a focus on institutional and cultural transformation of the National Police to prevent revictimization when dealing with victims. These five models are elaborations of models that have generally been applied universally, especially in Japan and New Zealand. It is hoped that this VOHP model can become the basis for better services for victims of sexual violent crimes in Indonesia.


  1. Abbey, A., & McAuslan, P. (2004). A longitudinal examination of male college students' perpetration of sexual assault. Journal of consulting and clinical psychology, 72(5), 747.

  2. Ashila, Bestha Inatsan dan Barus, Naomi Rehulina. (28 September 2021). “Kekerasan Seksual pada Laki-Laki: Diabaikan dan Belum Ditangani Serius.” [Sexual Violence Against Men: Ignored and Not Treated Seriously] Taken from, June 9th, 2023.

  3. BBC Indonesia. (10 Maret 2021). “Perempuan di Dunia Banyak Mengalami Kekerasan Fisik dan Seksual: Satu Dari Tiga Perempuan Jadi Korban, Ungkap Studi WHO.” [Women in the world experience physical and sexual violence: one in three women is a victim, WHO study] Taken from, March 18th, 2023.

  4. Brooks, O., & Burman, M. (2017). “Reporting rape: Victim perspectives on advocacy support in the criminal justice process.” Criminology & Criminal Justice, 17(2), 209–225.

  5. Burgess RJ, et al. (2009). “Fuelling transcriptional silencing with Gas1.” Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 106(27):10879-80.

  6. Carroll, C. P. (2023). “Reinvestigating the Sexual Violence ‘Justice Gap’ in the Swedish Criminal Justice System: Victim-Centered Alternatives to the Criminal Trial.” Feminist Criminology, 18(1), 45–64.

  7. Clark, M. (2016). “Victim-Centred Policing: The Shepherd’s Solution to Policing in the 21st Century.” The Police Journal, Volume 76 (2003).

  8. Clinard, M., Quinney, R., & Wildeman, J. (2014). Criminal behaviour systems: A typology.

  9. Creswell, J. W. (2014). Research Design: Qualitative, Quantitative and Mixed Methods Approaches (4th ed.). Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage

  10. Denzin, Norman K. dan Lincoln, Yvonna S. (2017). The SAGE Handbook of Qualitative Research. SAGE Publications.

  11. Dickinson, H. and Neal, C. (2011) ‘Single Point of Access to Third Sector Services: The Conwy Collaborative Approach’. Journal of Integrated Care, Vol. 19 Issue: 2 (37-48.

  12. Dinata, Umar. (Juni 2020). "Implementasi Prinsip Restorative Justice Berdasarkan Victim Oriented dalam Diversi Guna Penyelesaian Tindak Pidana yang Dilakukan oleh Anak (Studi Pada Unit PPA Satreskrim Polres Pesisir Selatan)." [Implementation of the Principles of Victim-Oriented Restorative Justice in Diversion to Resolve Crimes Committed by Children (Study at the Women and Children Services Unit of Pesisir Selatan Police Force)] Unes Law Review, Volume 2, Issue 4.

  13. Doak, J. (2014). Victims’ rights in the criminal justice system. 5497-5508

  14. Doerner, W. G. Lab, SP (2012). Victimology. MA: Anderson Publishing.

  15. Faniyah, Iyah Faniyah dan Maulana, Fajar. (2023). "Penerapan Teknologi Informasi Elektronik Police 4.0 untuk Merespon Secara Cepat Terjadinya Tindak Pidana pada Wilayah Hukum Polres Payakumbuh.” [Application of The Electronic Information Technology "Police 4.0" to Respond Quickly to Criminal Acts in the Legal Area of Payakumbuh Police Force] UNES Journal of Swara Justisia, Volume 7, Issue 1 (30-41).

  16. Farrell, G. (2001). "How victim-oriented is policing?" In: A. Gaudreault and I. Waller (Eds.). 2001. Tenth International Symposium on Victimology: Selected Symposium Proceedings. Montreal: Tenth International Symposium on Victimology.

  17. Fisher, B. S., & Reyns, B. W. (2009). “Victimization.” In J. M. Miller, 21st Century Criminology: A Reference Handbook. Sage Publication

  18. Fisher, R. P., & Geiselman, R. E. (1992). Memory-enhancing techniques for investigative interviewing: The cognitive interview. Charles C Thomas, Publisher.

  19. Gavey, Nicola dan Farley, Jade. (2020). Reframing sexual violence as “sexual harm” in New Zealand policy. Routledge: Sexual Violence in Intimacy

  20. Hanita, Margaretha dan Nurherwati, Sir (Eds.). (2022). Panduan dan SOP Penanganan Kasus Kekerasan terhadap Perempuan dan Anak di Polda Metro Jaya. [Guidelines and SOPs on Handling Cases of Violence against Women and Children at Polda Metro Jaya] Jakarta: Polda Metro Jaya.

  21. Hoefnagels, G. Peter. (1969). The Other Slide of Criminology (An Inversion of the Concept of Crime). Holand: Kluwer Deventer.

  22. Hopkins, T., & Flemington, P. S. (2009). An effective system for investigating complaints against police. Victoria Law Foundation. Australia: Grants Publication.

  23. Indonesia Judicial Research Society. (16 Maret 2021). “Mayoritas Perkara Kekerasan Seksual tidak Memperoleh Penyelesaian". [The majority of sexual violence cases do not receive a resolution] Taken from, March 24th, 2023.

  24. Ito, F. (2016). Building the Comprehensive Support System for Crime Victims in Cooperation with Public and Private Sector. Tokyo: KAKENJI.

  25. Jann, W., & Wegrich, K. (2007). Theories of the Policy Cycle, [in:] Fischer, F., Miller, GJ, Sidney, MS (Ed.), Handbook of Public Policy Analysis, Theory, Politics, and Methods.

  26. Karmen, A. (2010). Victims of rapes and other sexual assaults. Crime Victims: An Introduction to Victimology (7th ed.). Belmont, California: Cengage Learning, 255.

  27. Karnavian, T., & Sulistyo, H. (2017). Democratic Policing. Jakarta: Pensil 324.

  28. Katsuta, S., & Hazama, K. (2016). Cognitive distortions of child molesters on probation or parole in Japan. Japanese Psychological Research, 58, 163-174.

  29. Kawabata, Y., Tseng, W.-L., & Crick, N. R. (2014). Adaptive, maladaptive, mediational, and bidirectional processes of relational and physical aggression, relational and physical victimization, and peer liking. Aggresive Behavior, 40(3), 273-287.

  30. Kriyantono, Rachmat. (2012). Public Relation & Crisis Management: Pendekatan Critical Public Relations, Etnografi Kritis & Kualitatif. [Public Relations & Crisis Management: Critical Public Relations, Critical Ethnography, and Qualitative Approaches] Jakarta: Kencana Prenada Group.

  31. Loftus, Bethan. (2009). “Police Culture in a Changing World, Clarendon Studies in Criminology.” online edn Oxford Academic.

  32. Mirzana, Hijrah Adhyanti. (2012). “Kebijakan Kriminalisasi Delik Penodaan Agama.” [Policy on Criminalizing Religious Blasphemy Offenses] Pandecta: Jurnal Penelitian Ilmu Hukum, 7(2).

  33. Miyakoshi, K., & Kasahara, T. (2003). The present situation and issues of internal cooperation in Japanese Police. Keisatsugaku Ronshu, 56(10), 102-136.

  34. Moleong, Lexy. (2014). Metode Penelitian Kualitatif Edisi Revisi. [Qualitative Research Methods Revised Edition] Jakarta: Remaja Rosda Karya.

  35. National Police Agency. (2023). Police Support for Crime Victims.Tokyo: NGA.

  36. Neuman, William Lawrence. (2013). Social Research Methods: Qualitative and Quantitative Approaches. Pearson Education.

  37. Nunes, K. L., & Jung, S. (2013). Are cognitive distortions associated with denial and minimization among sex offenders? Sexual Abuse, 25, 166-188.

  38. Ohbuchi, K., Ishige, H., Yamanoha, T., & Inoue, K. (1985). Rape myths and sex crimes. Japanese Journal of Criminal Psychology, 23(2), 1-12.

  39. Paterson, C. (2022). “Victim-Oriented Police Reform: A Comparative Perspective.” In Jeglic, & Calkins, Handbook of Issues in Criminal Justice Reform in the United States. Springer.

  40. Paterson, Craig and Williams, Andrew. (2018). "Towards victim-oriented police? Some reflections on the concept and purpose of policing and their implications for victim-oriented police reform." Journal Of Victimology and Victim Justice, 1(1), 85-101.

  41. Peraturan Polri Nomor 5 Tahun 2019 tentang Perubahan Perkap Nomor 6 Tahun 2017 tentang SOTK Mabes Polri [National Police Regulation Number 5 of 2019 concerning Amendments to Chief of the Indonesian National Police Regulation Number 6 of 2017 concerning Organizational Structure and Working Procedures of the National Police Headquarters of the Republic of Indonesia]

  42. Polaschek, D. L., & Ward, T. (2002). The implicit theories of potential rapists: What our questionnaires tell us. Aggresion and Violent Behavior, 7, 385-406.

  43. Ricciardelli, R., Spencer, D. C., & Dodge, A. (2021). “Society Wants to See a True Victim: Police Interpretations of Victims of Sexual Violence.” Feminist Criminology, 16(2), 216–235.

  44. Roberson, C., & Mire, S. (2009). Ethics for Criminal Justice Professionals. CRC Press.

  45. Rowe, Michael dan Macauley, Michael. (2019). "Giving voice to the victims of sexual assault: the role of police leadership in organisational change." Policing: An International Journal of Police Strategies & Management 42(14).

  46. Rue, Lisa De La, Ortega, Lilyana and Rodriguez, Gena Castro. (2023). "System-based victim advocates identify resources and barriers to supporting crime victims." Int Rev Vict., 29(1): 16–26.

  47. Sellin, T., & Wolfgang, M. E. (1964). The measurement of delinquency.

  48. Skolnick, Jerome H. (1999). On Democratic Policing. Washington, DC: Police Foundation.

  49. Strobl, R. (2010). “Theoretical and Historical Frameworks.” In Shoham, Knepper, & Kett. International Handbook of Victimology. CRC Press.

  50. Sugiyono. (2016). Metode Penelitian Kuantitatif, Kualitatif, R&D. [Quantitative, Qualitative, R&D Research Methods] Bandung: IKAPI.

  51. (13 Mei 2019). "Victim blaming in sexual assault cases 'appalling', Crown Prosecutor says amid damning statistics." Taken from

  52. Undang-Undang Nomor 12 Tahun 2022 tentang Tindak Pidana Kekerasan Seksual. [Law Number 12 of 2022 on Sexual Violence Crimes]

  53. Undang-undang Nomor 23 Tahun 2004 tentang Penghapusan Kekerasan Dalam Rumah Tangga (UU PKDRT). [Law Number 23 of 2004 on Elimination of Domestic Violence]

  54. Undang-Undang Nomor 31 Tahun 2014 tentang Perubahan atas Undang-Undang Nomor 13 Tahun 2006 tentang Perlindungan Saksi dan Korban. [Law Number 31 of 2014 concerning Amendments to Law Number 13 of 2006 concerning Protection of Witnesses and Victims]

  55. United Nations. (1985). Declaration of Basic Principles of Justice for Victims of Crime and Abuse of Power. Taken from

  56. Walidin, Warul, Idris, Saifullah, dan Tabrani. (2015). Metodologi Penelitian Kualitatif & Grounded Theory. [Qualitative Research Methodology & Grounded Theory] Banda Aceh: FTK Ar-Raniry Press.

  57. Walklate, S. (2012). “Who is the victim of crime? Paying homage to the work of Richard Quinney.” Crime Media Culture 8(2).

  58. Wedlock, Elaine dan Tapley, Jacqueline Denise. (2016). "What works in supporting victims of crime: a rapid evidence assessment." University Portsmouth: Victim's Commissioner.

  59. Welsh, B. C., & Farrington, D. P. (2012). “Science, politics, and crime prevention: Toward a new crime policy.” Journal of Criminal Justice, 40(2), 128–133.

  60. Wemmers, J. &. (2014). “Defining victims: A proposed typology for victims of war crimes and their need for reparation.” I., Bantekas, E. Mylonaki, (Eds.). Wemmers, J., & Manirabona, A. (2014). Defining victims: A proposed typology for victims of Criminological approaches to international criminal law.

  61. Xie, M., & Lynch, J. P. (2017). “The Effects of Arrest, Reporting to the Police, and Victim Services on Intimate Partner Violence.” Journal of Research in Crime and Delinquency, 54(3), 338–378.

  62. Yamagami, A. (2008). The Development of Crime Victim Support, National Network for Victim Support. In A. Yamagami, Indispensable Guidebook on Crime Victim Support (pp. 9-15). Tokyo: Horei Shuppan.

  63. Young, A. (2019). Japanese Atmospheres of Criminal Justice. The British Journal of Criminology, 59(4), 765-779.

bottom of page