top of page
Asian Institute of Research, Journal Publication, Journal Academics, Education Journal, Asian Institute
Asian Institute of Research, Journal Publication, Journal Academics, Education Journal, Asian Institute

Law and Humanities
Quarterly Reviews

ISSN 2827-9735

Judge Gavel
 Scales of Justice
City Crowds
People in Library
open access

Published: 29 September 2023

Oil and Gas Extraction in Nigeria and its Impacts on Environment: Radical Measures to Deep-Seated Challenges of Environmental Sustainability

E. E. Egba, Abiodun Amuda-Kannike, Oyebola Animashaun, Yusuf Amuda-Kannike

Ebonyi State University, Kwara State University, Legal Practitioner

asia institute of research, journal of education, education journal, education quarterly reviews, education publication, education call for papers
pdf download

Download Full-Text Pdf



Pages: 154-161

Keywords: Oil and Gas, Extraction, Environment, Impacts


Environmental Law is a contemporary issue and this invasive subject houses number of other disciplines like economics, sociology, social sciences, oil and gas law, law of the sea, international law and many others. These disciplines have made some efforts to understand the best way to approach the environment with divergent views through interdisciplinary approach in assessing their choice of policy and ideas. As a result, this work will delve into a qualitative approach in exploring the perspectives that influence ways of thinking and making policies that are reflected in Nigerian environmental laws and policies and judicial processes in maintaining a sustaining environmental development and conserving its bio-diversity.


AG Abia State V. A.G. Federation (2002)
Aguda, A. (n.d.) The Judge in Developing Countries (Nigerian Institute Advanced Legal Studies Occasional Paper).
Aaron K. K., 2005, “ Perspective: Big Oil, Rural Poverty, and Environmental Degradation in the Niger Delta Region of Nigeria” Journal of Agricultural Safety and Health. 11(2)
Acquisitions of Assets (British Petroleum & Co Ltd), Act 1979
Adewale O., 1997/1998, “Rylands Vs. Fletcher and the Nigerian Petroleum Industry” vols. 8 & 9, J.P.P.L.
Ake Claude, 1999, ‘Shelling Nigeria Ablaze’ Tell Magazine January 29th 1999
Akpan W., “Oil, People and the Environment: Understanding Land-Related Controversies in Nigerian’s Oil Region”,
Arctic Waters Pollution Prevention Act: S.C. 2009
Ashiomanedu Joel, 2008, “Poverty and sustainable development in the Niger Delta Region of Nigeria, Journal of sustainable development in Africa”, vol. 10 no. 3
Atsegbua., 2004, L. et al, Environmental Law in Nigeria, Ababa Press
Attorney-General Federation v. Attorney-General Abia State & 35 Ors. (2001) 11 NWLR 689.
Ayoddele-Akaaka F.O., “Appraising the Oil And Gas Laws: A Search For Enduring Legislation For The Niger-Delta Region”.
Bell and David supra, 1996, Environmental Act 1995
Brundtland Report, 1987, the World Commission on Environment and Development of our Common Future Department of Environment London
C. Dytham, 2000, “Habitat Destructions and Extinctions: Predictions from Metapopulation Models’ in M. J. Hutchings et al (eds) The Ecological Consequences of Environmental Heterogeneity, Oxford
C.C. Nweze, 1998, “Justice in the Judicial Process: Essays in Honour of Honourable Justice Eugene Ubaezonu, Asian Development Bank’s Summary of the Hand Book on Resettlement: A guide to Good Practice
Carpenter S., Low C. A., and Olynyk J., 2001, “Oil and Gas Development in Western Canada in the New Millennium: The Changing Legal Framework in the Northwest Territories, the Yukon and Offshore British Columbia”, Alberta Law Review, Vol. 39
Constitutional Rights Project Land, Oil and Human Rights in Nigeria's Niger Delta Region, 1999, CRP
D. Wilkinson, 2002, Environment and Law, London: Routledge
David Robinson & John Dunkley, 1995, Public Interest Perspectives in Environmental Law, Wiley Chancery London
Doe v. Exxon Mobil, No. 01 – CV1357, (DDC July 29, 2002).
Ebeku K. S. A., 2001, “Oil and the Niger-Delta People: The injustice of Land Use Act”, CEPMLP Journal, November 2001.;
EIA decree No 86 in 1992
Endangered Species Decree Cap 108 LFN 1990
Engobo Emeseh, 2005 “Gas Flaring in Nigeria: The Decision of the Federal High Court in Context”, published on 22th December 2005 via, htt://
Environmental Impact Assessment Act EIA Cap 10 L.F.N. 1990
Environmental Impact Assessment Act 1992.
Environmental Protection Act 1990 (UK)
Environmental Protection and Enhancement Act, R.S.A. 2000,
Federal Environmental Protection Act (FEPA) Cap 131 LFN, 1990
Harmful Waste (Special Criminal Provisions) Act Cap 165, LFN, 1990
Hillebrecht, Courtney. "The European Court of Human Rights, Domestic Politics and the Ties that Bind: Explaining Compliance with International Human Rights Tribunals" Paper presented at the annual meeting of the Theory vs. Policy? Connecting Scholars and Practitioners, New Orleans Hilton Riverside Hotel, New Orleans, LA, available at
Federal Environmental Protection Agency (FEPA) Act Vol. VII, Cap 131 L.F.N. 1990
Gani Fawehinmi V General Sani Abacha & 3 Others (1996) 9 NWLR (Pt. 475)
Ian J. Bateman and Ken G. Willis, 1999, Value Environmental Preferences – Theory and Practice of the Contingent Valuation in the US, EU and Developing Countries, Oxford: Clarendon Press
Idemudia, Uwem E. Ite, 2006, “Corporate-community relations in Nigeria's oil industry: challenges and imperatives”, Wiley journals Volume 13 Issue 4
Ikein A., 1990, “The Impact of Oil and Gas on the Developing Country: The Case of Nigeria”, New York; Praeger
Ikpede v Shell BP Development Company of Nigeria Limited, 1973, A. U. N.L.R. 61
Ikporukpo C.O., 2004, “Petroleum, Fiscal Federalism and Environmental Justice in Nigeria”, Published by Space and Polity, Vol. 8, No. 3
International conventions and African Convention on Conservation of Nature and Natural Resources
Lakanmi and Kikelomo Ola v Attorney-General (Western State) and others, 1971, 20 I.C.L Q.645.
Lauren D. Dellinger, 2009, “Corporate Social Responsibilities: A Multifaceted Tool to Avoid Alien Tort Claims Act Litigation while Simultaneously Building a Better Business Reputation”, California Western International Law Journal Vol. 40 No. 1
Martha M. Roggenkamp, 2001, Energy Law in Europe: National, EU and International Law & Institutions Oxford University Press
Mary Ellen O’Connell, 1995, “Symposium: Enforcement and the Success of International Environmental Law, 3 Ind. J. Global Leg. Stud. 47
Mineral Oil (Safety) Regulation 1963
Mineral Producing Areas Development Commission (OMPADEC) Decree No. 23, 1992.
National Oil Spill Detection and Response Agency (NOSDRA) under the National Oil Spill Detection and Response Agency (Establishment) Act 15, 2006.
Nation’s Constitution 1999
National Environmental Standards and Regulations Enforcement Agency (Establishment) Act, 2007
Neil Hawke, 2002, Environmental Policy: Implementation and enforcement, Ashgate Publishing Ltd
Niger Delta Development Commission (Establishment etc.) 2000
Nigerian 1999 constitution
Nigerian National Petroleum Commission 1977 Cap 320 L.F.N. 1990
Nwabueze, B.O, 1982 The Presidential Constitution of Nigeria (Hurst/Nwarmife)
Nwabueze, B.O, 1992 “Nature of Military Revolutionary Military Government” Journal of the Nigerian Law Vol.3 No.187
Nwilo, P.C. & O.T. Badejo, 2005, Oil Spill Problems and Management in the Niger Delta, International Oil Spill Conference, Miami, Florida, USA
Oil and Gas Conservation Amendment Regulation (Oil and Gas Conservation Act): Alta. Reg.
Oil in Navigable Waters Act 1968 VOL. XIX Cap. 337 L.F.N. 1990
Oil Pipeline 1956 Cap 337 Laws of the Federation of Nigeria (L.F.N.), 1990
Ojukwu Vs. Governor of Lagos State (1986) 1 N.W.L.R. (Pt.18) 621
Okonkwo R. T., 2003, The Law of Environmental Liability, Afrique Environmental Development and Education, Lagos, Nigeria
Olagoke W., 1996, Niger Delta Environmental Survey: Which Way Forward? Ultimate Water Technology & Environment
Olopade, O and Izevbuwa, O.G., 2005, “Effects of Gas Pollution on the Environment”, Journal of Public and International Law, Igbinedion University, Okada, Vol. 1, No. 1
Omeje K. C.,2006, “High Stakes and Stakeholders: Oil Conflict and Security in Nigeria”, (Ashgate Publishing, Ltd.)
Oputa, C., 1993, “Towards Greater Efficiency in the Dispensation of Justice in Nigeria” in Yemi Akenseye –George (ed), Law, Justice and stability in Nigeria: Essays in Honour of Justice Kayode Eso, Ibadan, JSMB
Peter C. Nwilo and Olusegun T. Badejo, 2005 ‘Impacts and Management of Oil Spill Pollution along the Nigerian Coastal Areas’
Petroleum (Drilling and Production) Regulation 1969 s. 25
Petroleum (Refining) Regulation 1974
Petroleum Act, 1968 Cap. 350 L.F.N. 1990
Petroleum Control Act No. 28, 1967 and many others.
Petroleum Drilling and Production Regulation 1969
Petroleum Refining Regulations 1974
Petroleum Regulations 1967
Petroleum Technology Development Fund Act 1973 No. 25 1973 amended to PTDF Act in 1990
Rio Declaration on Environment and Development 13 June 1992,
Salmond and Houston, 1992, the Law of Torts, London: Sweet and Maxwell
Sosa v. Alvarez – Machain, 542, U.S. 692 (2004)
Stanley P. Johnson, 1993, The Earth Summit: The United Nations Conference on Environment and Development, London: Graham & Trotman/Martinus Nijhoff
Stuart Bell & M. Donald, 2006, Environmental Law, 6th edition Oxford University Press New York
Tayo Akeem Yusuf, “The Status of Environmental Governance in the Nigerian Oil & Gas Industry”
Terence Daintith & Geofrey Willoughby, 1984, UK Oil and Gas Law, Sweet and Maxwell, London
The Environmental Act 1995 and the Water Resources Act 1991 of United Kingdom etc.
The Federal Environmental Protection Act (FEPA) Cap 131 LFN, 1990,
Tuomas Kuokkanen 2004, “Integrating Environmental Protection and Exploitation of Natural Resources: Reflections on the Evolution of the Doctrine of Sustainable Development”, Journal of energy and Natural Resources
U.N. Doc. A/CNF.151/5/Rev.1
Ukeje C., 2001, “Youths, Violence and the Collapse of Public Order in the Niger Delta of Nigeria”, African Development, Vol. xxvi Nos. 1 & 2
United Nations Framework Convention on Biological Diversity 5 June 1992, U.N. Doc. UNEP/bio.Div/N7-INC.514
Uwais, M.L. (2005) Address delivered at the Nigeria Judges Conference, Abuja December 5, 2005;
Uwafiokun Idemudia, 2009, “The Quest for the Effective Use of Natural Resource Revenue in Africa: Beyond Transparency and the Need for Compatible Cultural Democracy in Nigeria” Africa Today - Volume 56, Number 2
Wale Okidiran, 2005, “Parliamentary Initiatives in Energy Legislation and Sustainable Development: The Nigerian Perspective”, Paper presented at the Parliamentary Forum on Energy Legislation and Sustainable Development, 5th – 7th October, 2005
Victoria Jenkins, 2002, Placing Sustainable Development at the Heart of Government in the UK, 22 LS 2002

bottom of page