Journal of Social and Political
ISSN 2615-3718 (Online)
ISSN 2621-5675 (Print)
Published: 28 June 2023
Enhancement of Polri’s Role in Dealing with Disinformation and Radicalism Extremism Terrorism and Separatism Propaganda in Cyberspace
Ervan Christawan, Septi Ariadi, Prawitra Thalib, Dewa Astika, Bagong Suyanto
Airlangga University, Indonesia
Download Full-Text Pdf
Keywords: Counter Propaganda, Radicalism, Extremism, Terrorism, Separatism
In the pursuit of eudaimonia, which encompasses well-being, prosperity, and happiness, war has historically been paradoxically utilized to promote economic growth, political dominance, and religious aspirations. War arises from failed attempts to establish mutually beneficial relationships, leading to heightened competition and eventual conflicts. The influence of past wars continues to shape future conflicts, exposing vulnerabilities that adversaries exploit through evolving methods of warfare, influenced by global geopolitics, international agreements, and advancements in science and technology. With the end of the Cold War, the world has moved beyond the division between the Western and Eastern blocs. Rapid advancements in science and technology have fostered increased interconnectedness among nations, blurring geographical boundaries and giving rise to the multidimensional VUCA (volatility, uncertainty, complexity, and ambiguity) phenomenon. As a result, global geopolitics and warfare strategies have evolved towards interconnectedness and hybrid warfare, with an emphasis on targeting societies. In response to these transformations, governments and societies must adapt by disseminating the Pancasila ideology, embracing the Bhinneka Tunggal Ika Tanhana Dharmma Mangrva motto, cultivating noble character and morality, and establishing innovative synergistic work patterns. By embracing these changes, Indonesia can effectively navigate the dynamics of the global environment and work towards achieving a Golden Indonesia by 2045.
Aditiya, S. (2022). 5 Fascinating Facts about the Melanesian Ancestors of the Papua People. Viva. https://www.viva.co.id/edukasi/1493929-5-fakta-menarik-ras-melanesia-nenek-moyang-orang-papua
Alfons, M. (2022). BNPT Reveals 119 Islamic Boarding Schools Affiliated with ISIS Network, 68 JI Networks. https://news.detik.com/berita/d-5915813/bnpt-ungkap-ada-119-ponpes-terafiliasi-jaringan-ISIS-68-jaringan-ji
Asaribab, H. (2014). Revitalization of UN Resolution No. 2504 on the results of the Act of Free Choice in West Irian (Papua) to enhance national resilience in order to realize the integrity of the Unitary State of the Republic of Indonesia (NKRI). Individual Scientific Paper of PPSA LII. National Resilience Institute of Indonesia.
Asmoro, R. D., Toruan, T. L., Anwar, S., & Simbolon, L. (2021). Implementation of international norms and practices in Indonesian diplomacy 1962-1969 in maintaining West Irian as an inseparable part of the Unitary State of the Republic of Indonesia. Jurnal Pertahanan, 7(3), 541-550.
Ball, G. (2019). What Is Hybrid Warfare?. Global Security Review.https://globalsecurityreview.com/hybrid-and-non-linear-warfare-systematically-erases-the-divide-between-war-peace/
Christawan, E. (2021). Building National Competence in Order to Enhance Economic Resilience. Individual Academic Paper of PPRA LXII. National Resilience Institute of Indonesia.
Hermawan, T. (2021). The Implementation of Cyber Intelligence Troops in Dealing with Threats on Social Media to Ensure National Security. Individual Academic Paper of PPRA LXII. National Resilience Institute of Indonesia.
Winarsadi, G. P. R. (2021). Cyber Security Management to Enhance National Resilience. Individual Academic Paper of PPRA LXII. National Resilience Institute of Indonesia.
Edhie, I. S. (2021). Enhancing Digital Literacy to Strengthen National Cyber Resilience. Individual Academic Paper of PPRA LXII. National Resilience Institute of Indonesia.
Kiras, J. D. (2007). “Irregular Warfare: Terrorism and Insurgency”, dalam John Baylis et. al. (ed.), Strategy in the Contemporary World, Oxford: Oxford University Press, pp. 163-191.
Nugroho, A. (2021). Transformation of Electronic-Based Law Enforcement by the Indonesian National Police (Polri) in Supporting National Resilience. Individual Academic Paper of PPRA LXII. National Resilience Institute of Indonesia.
Daihani, D. U. (2019). National resilience measurement system and GIS-based public policy simulation. National Resilience Measurement Laboratory (Labkurtannas) of the National Resilience Institute of Indonesia.
Republic of Indonesia Defence University. (2013). Strategic Study of National Cyber Security in Order to Enhance National Resilience. Republic of Indonesia Defence University.
Swantara. (2022). National Resilience in the Geo V Era. Majalah Triwulan Lemhannas RI, 41(11), 6-14.
Nye, J. S. (2002). Information Technology and Democratic Governance. Governance.com: Democracy in the Information Age. Ed. Kamarck, Elaine, and Joseph S. Nye, Jr. Brookings Institution.
Vinci, A. (2009). Armed Groups and the Balance of Power. New York: Routledge.
Lee, E., and Vivarelli, M. (2006). Globalization, Employment and Income Distribution in Developing Countries. Palgrave, Macmillan and ILO, Basingstoke 2006. 253.
Wray, C. (2021). Keeping America Secure in the New Age of Terror. Federal Bureau of Investigation. https://www.fbi.gov/news/testimony/keeping-america-secure-in-the-new-age-of-terror
Indonesia Politic School. (2020). The Digital Market is Growing Rapidly, Infrastructure and Mobile Ownership are Still Lagging Behind.https://sekolahpolitik.id/pasar-digital-berkembang-pesat-infrastruktur-dan-kepemilikan-ponsel-masih-tersendat/
CNN. (2018). Observer: Surabaya Bombings as Leaderless Jihadhttps://www.cnnindonesia.com/nasional/20180513133504-20-297777/pengamat-bom-surabaya-bentuk-jihad-tanpa-pemimpin
Putra, N. P. (2020). Commander of the Indonesian National Armed Forces (TNI) States that Extensive Social Media Propaganda Threatens the Unity of the Republic of Indonesia (NKRI). Liputan6. https://www.liputan6.com/news/read/4414368/panglima-tni-sebut-propaganda-di-medsos-yang-sangat-masif-ancam-keutuhan-nkri
Wardhani, B. (2009). Papua on the Net: The Struggle for Papua's Separation through the Virtual World. Paper Draft, Airlangga University.
Data Reportal. (2022). Hootsuite (We are Social): Indonesian Digital Report 2022. https://andi.link/hootsuite-we-are-social-indonesian-digital-report-2022/
McDevitt, J., Levin, J., & Bennett, S. 2002. Hate Crime Offenders: An Expanded Typology. Journal of Social Issues, 58(2), pp. 303–317.
Poussaint, A. F. (2015). Is extreme racism a mental illness?. MDedge Psychiatry. https://www.mdedge.com/psychiatry/article/101285/schizophrenia-other-psychotic-disorders/extreme-racism-mental-illness
National Resilience Institute of Indonesia. (2021). Geopolitik V. Lemhannas RI.
Hoffman, F. (2007). Conflict in the 21st century: The rise of hybrid wars. Potomac Institute for Policy Studies.
Kirshner, J. (2006). Globalization and national security. Routledge; Taylor & Francis Group.
National Resilience Institute of Indonesia. (2022). Field of Study: National Resilience. Lemhannas RI.
Kaldor. M. (1998). New and Old Wars. Polity Press, Cambridge.
Mukhtadi, H. (2021). The government's strategy in addressing the Papua separatist movement and its implications for Indonesia's defense diplomacy. Jurnal Diplomasi Pertahanan, 7(2), 85-94.
Doob, L. (1950). Goebbels' Principles of Nazi Propaganda. The Public Opinion Quarterly 3, 14(3), 419–442.
North Atlantic Treaty Organization. (2023). NATO’s response to hybrid threats. NATO. https://www.nato.int/cps/en/natohq/topics_156338.htm
Galula. D. (1964). Counterinsurgency Warfare: Theory and Practice. Praeger.
Haulman, D. L. (2003). USAF Psychological Operations, 1990-2003. Research Paper Air Force Historical Research Agency.
Lina, J. 2004. Architects of Deception. Referent Publishing.
Santayana, G. (1905). The life of reason: Introduction and reason in common sense. The MIT Press
Hilmy, M. (2015). Religious Radicalism and the Democracy-Politics Nexus in Post-New Order Indonesia. MIQOT, 34(2), 407-425.
Hadi, R. P. (2016). Challenges to Indonesia's National Security in Responding to the Transformation of Separatism and Cyber Protests in Papua. Joint seminar on Public and international affairs UMM-Unair, Malaysia Utara University.
Zaidan, M. A. (2017). Counterterrorism Law Enforcement (Criminal Policy Approach). Seminar Nasional Hukum Universitas Negeri Semarang, 3(1), 149-180.
Windiani, R. (2017). Indonesia's Role in Combating Terrorism. Jurnal Ilmu Sosial, 16(2), 135-162.
Nurwansyah, A. N., Defianti, D., Pahlevi, R. M., Wahyudi, S. A. W., & Ernanta S., Y. B. (Ret. 2022). Impacts on the Surrounding Community Following the Thamrin Jakarta Bombing. Researchgate.
Rahmatika, A. (2017). The Image of Wahhabism in Mass Media. Mediakita, 2(2), 99-113.
Hamdi, S. (2019). De-culturization of Islam and Social Conflict in Wahhabi Preaching in Indonesia. Kawistara, 9(2), 64-178.
Masrur, A. (2014). Modernization of Islamic Education (An Analysis of Azyumardi Azra's Thoughts on the Modernization of Islamic Education in Indonesia). Master's Thesis in Islamic Religious Education. Universitas Islam Negeri Maulana Malik Ibrahim Malang.
Aditya, G. D., Hardiwinoto, S., & Setiyono, J. (2017). The Role and Status of Private Military Companies in Armed Conflicts from the Perspective of International Humanitarian Law. Diponegoro Law Journal, 6(1), 1-18.
Wirutomo, P. (2012). Indonesia Social System. UI Press.
Durkheim, E. (1962). The Rules of Sociological Method. The Free Press.
Liputan6. Governor of Lemhannas States that the Government Forms the Fourth Force in the Digital and Cyber Domain. https://www.liputan6.com/news/read/5179395/gubernur-lemhannas-sebut-pemerintah-bentuk-angkatan-keempat-bidang-digital-dan-siber
Loader, I., Goold, B., & Thumala, A. (2014). Consuming Security? Tools for a Sociology of Security Consumption. Theoretical Criminology. 14(1). 3-30. DOI: 10.1177/1362480609354533.
Faria, F. C. (2019). Draft Law on Social Security Card (KKS) Accused of Not Being for the People But Urgently Needed. Kompas.com. https://nasional.kompas.com/read/2019/08/22/07504531/ruu-kks-dituding-bukan-untuk-rakyat-tapi-dibutuhkan-segera
Widjajanto, A. (2022). "Geo V" in the Academic Oration of the 57th Anniversary National Resilience Institute of Indonesia. Lemhannas RI.