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Online Learning in Marcuse's Critical Theory Perspective

Marselus Ruben Payong

Universitas Katolik Indonesia Santu Paulus Ruteng

This article examines Marcuse's critical theory of online learning practices. Some of Marcuse's criticisms of modern society have important relevance for observing the phenomena of learning innovations that are offered today. This research is a literature study with discourse analysis of a number of Marcuse's writings, both written by himself and collected by his followers in a collection of papers after his death. The results of the study show that: 1) educational practices that utilize modern management principles, especially in the form of standardization and homogenization of policies, have the potential to produce a one-dimensional society as criticized in the 1960s. 2) Online learning, as one of the important revolutions in education that uses technology, has the potential to be a new form of slavery; 3) through the use of artificial technology, online learning can be a form of instrumentalization and manipulation in teacher and student interactions; 4) online learning also has the character of automation, which in the end can lead to alienation processes for students, especially psychological alienation and cultural alienation.



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